Friday, May 31, 2019

Analysis of Robert Frosts Fire and Ice Essay examples -- Frost Fire a

Analysis of Robert Frosts Fire and Ice For Robert Frost, poetry and life were one and the same. In an interview he said, One thing I care about, and wish young people could care about, is taking poetry as the first form of understanding. separately Robert Frost poem strikes a chord somewhere, each poem bringing us closer to life with the compression of feeling and emotion into so hardly a(prenominal) words. This essay will focus on one particular poem, the meaning of which has been much debated due to the quantity of words used, or the lack there-of. There vex been many readers of Frosts poem Fire and Ice, thus being interpreted in many ways. Many readers would interpret the poem to mean something about the sensual end of the world, or the end of the physical world (1). Lawrence Thompson views the poem as hinting at the destructive powers in the heat of love or passion and the cold of hate, percept that these two extremes are made so to encompass life as to be a gathering up of all that may exist betwixt them all that may be swept away by them (2). Upon closer examination of Fire and Ice, I found a distinct analogue that closely mirrors the tale of Dantes Inferno. The Inferno is the first part of Dante Alighieris poem, the Divine Comedy, which chronicles Dantes journey to God, and is made up of The Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise). In The Inferno, Dante begins his journey on the surface of the Earth, point by the Ro... .... Much later, and in what I think is a veiled tribute to Robert Frost, John Ciardi translates these lines as(2) I come to lead you to the other shore, into eternal dark, into fire and ice. (3.83-84) kit and caboodle Cited http// Online. Netscape Navigator. Feb. 4, 2001. Thompson, Lawrance. Fire and Ice The Art and Thought of Robert Frost. New York Henry Holt, 1942. Dante Al ighieri. The Inferno. Trans John Ciardi. New York Mentor, 1954. Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri. Vols. 9-11. Trans. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. http// Online. Netscape Navigator. Feb. 5, 2001.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Development of the Montessori Method Essay -- Maria Montessori ISD Met

Maria Montessori and the ISD Model Development of the Montessori MethodSummaryThe paper I nimble begins with a translation of the Montessori Method and a historical narration of the professional career of Dr. Maria Montessori. I also included some biographical information as to her origins and the indistinguishability of her parents. I then drew a comparison of her methods for developing the Montessori Method and her career to the ISD model. I compared significant events in her career to the analysis phase. Explaining that her experience with children will her to develop her programs. Then I drew a comparison to her work with the design and development phases, citing her materials that she uses in her classrooms and the classrooms themselves. Finally I compared her instruction execution and subsequent discoveries to the slaying and evaluation phases in ISD. I concluded with my own personal opinion, that Maria Montessori was an innovator and mostly responsible for modern educatio n. I apply four straightway quoted sources, one solely paraphrased, and one merely for research and background information.Since the late Nineteenth Century, educators and medical professionals have been concerned with the physical and moral development of children amid the ages of two and seven years. During the first part of the Industrial Revolution and through the beginning of the Twentieth Century, conditions in the cities and industrial centers were deplorable. Adult workers were laboured to work pertinacious hours and under extreme conditions, likewise children were made to endure arduous working environments with little or no concern for their well being, bunco of their ability to take to the work force. In Upton Sinclairs book, The Jungle, he des... ...ontessori, there is a distinct pattern to her development that is remarkably similar to those proposed by the ISD model.References Works CitedGettman, D. (1987). introductory Montessori learning activities for unde r-fives. tonic York St. Martins Press.Montessori, M. (1964). Dr. Montessoris own handbook. Boston Robert Bentley, Inc.Pines, M. (1967). Revolution in learning the years from birth to six. New York Harper and Row Publishers.Sinclair, U. (1960). The Jungle. New York The New American Library of gentlemans gentleman Literature.Standing, E.M. (1962). Maria Montessori her life and work. New York The New American Library of World Literature. Other SourcesBraun, S. J. (1974). Nursery education for disadvantages children an historical review. In Montessori in perspective. (pp. 7-24). National link for the Education of Young Children New York. Development of the Montessori Method Essay -- Maria Montessori ISD MetMaria Montessori and the ISD Model Development of the Montessori MethodSummaryThe paper I prepared begins with a description of the Montessori Method and a historical narration of the professional career of Dr. Maria Montessori. I also included some biographical in formation as to her origins and the identity of her parents. I then drew a comparison of her methods for developing the Montessori Method and her career to the ISD model. I compared significant events in her career to the analysis phase. Explaining that her experience with children lead her to develop her programs. Then I drew a comparison to her work with the design and development phases, citing her materials that she uses in her classrooms and the classrooms themselves. Finally I compared her implementation and subsequent discoveries to the implementation and evaluation phases in ISD. I concluded with my own personal opinion, that Maria Montessori was an innovator and mostly responsible for modern education. I used four directly quoted sources, one solely paraphrased, and one merely for research and background information.Since the late Nineteenth Century, educators and medical professionals have been concerned with the physical and mental development of children between the ages of two and seven years. During the first part of the Industrial Revolution and through the beginning of the Twentieth Century, conditions in the cities and industrial centers were deplorable. Adult workers were forced to work long hours and under extreme conditions, likewise children were made to endure arduous working environments with little or no concern for their well being, short of their ability to contribute to the work force. In Upton Sinclairs book, The Jungle, he des... ...ontessori, there is a distinct pattern to her development that is remarkably similar to those proposed by the ISD model.References Works CitedGettman, D. (1987). Basic Montessori learning activities for under-fives. New York St. Martins Press.Montessori, M. (1964). Dr. Montessoris own handbook. Boston Robert Bentley, Inc.Pines, M. (1967). Revolution in learning the years from birth to six. New York Harper and Row Publishers.Sinclair, U. (1960). The Jungle. New York The New American Library of World Li terature.Standing, E.M. (1962). Maria Montessori her life and work. New York The New American Library of World Literature. Other SourcesBraun, S. J. (1974). Nursery education for disadvantages children an historical review. In Montessori in perspective. (pp. 7-24). National Association for the Education of Young Children New York.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Essay on the Language of A Clockwork Orange -- Clockwork Orange Essays

The Language of A Clockwork Orange Gooly into a world where by nochy prestoopniks rule and oobivat and by day all is well. This is the nature of A Clockwork Orange, a impertinent by Anthony Burgess, where one enters the world of a fifteen-year-old named Alex who speaks a vernacular language and does what he likes. This molody nadsat, or young teen, leads a life where crime is real horrorshow as he dodges millicents, or policemen, in order to live a life he wants in the merzky, grazzy city where he resides. Alex and his shaika oobivat too many lewdies, though, and the millicents loveted him. He consequently becomes a plenny in the StaJa, away from his moloko, snoutie or beloved classical music. As a plenny, he undergoes tests by viddying sinnies, making him horn in pain at the messel of krovvy or guttiwuts. After the tests, Alex returns to the streets as a real horrorshow new malchick, unable to pony or prod crime. Eventually, he meets a ded whose zheena he oobivated before, and i s tricked into almost coating his jeezny by thinking of the sinnies and being forced to gooly out of an okno and falling many raskazzes. Alex lives, though, and returns to a jeezny of crime and keeps the city spoogy of him. The previous paragraph gives an example what much of A Clockwork Oranges language is like throughout the progression of the novel and is partially the reason why it has developed much(prenominal) a cult pursual since its release in 1963. What Burgess has done is taken English as a base language, and through the use of slang from English, Russian, Arabic and Gypsy, formed a language all its own which actually manages to accurately depict both the mindset of Alex but also the brutality of the world in which he lives. roughly of his wo... ...restrictions in the forms of laws or minor regulations. So too does Alex express this interest. Although among todays youth it is not common to be rioting or embarking on a homicide spree, Alex feels this is his way of li ving a carefree life. However, as a result of his liberty being denied, he attempts to vent his anger by committing suicide. Again, todays teens do not generally veer towards those extremes. The parallel reaction in todays youth to Alexs reaction would be the profligate usage of innuendo, free use of the vernacular, indulgence in pleasure of any and all kinds, and the exhibition of mock violence to alleviate angst. It is interesting that there is such a shocking similarity betwixt our world and that of the novel because the novel was written in 1963, at which time there were certainly many differences between teens views then and those of today.

Procrastination Essay -- essays research papers

ProcrastinationProcrastination is the act or habits of putting things gain till the end out of laziness. Almost every student knows this dreaded word. They know if it becomes a habit, disaster happens with a sharp pass up in nurture grades. But what they dont realize is that procrastinating can actually benefit you in take aim. It can make you work harder, faster, and more than efficiently on school assignments. Even life skills in the real world can be created from procrastinating. Procrastination can actually stand by you work harder, faster, and more efficiently. It sounds like an unacceptable thing, however if youre like me or any other person that wants a fairly good mark on the nigh assignment, procrastinating can help you. While your friends are working hard on it, go play, and do the thing... Procrastination Essay -- essays research papers ProcrastinationProcrastination is the act or habits of putting things off till the end out of laziness. Almost e very student knows this dreaded word. They know if it becomes a habit, disaster happens with a sharp decline in school grades. But what they dont realize is that procrastinating can actually benefit you in school. It can make you work harder, faster, and more efficiently on school assignments. Even life skills in the real world can be created from procrastinating. Procrastination can actually help you work harder, faster, and more efficiently. It sounds like an impossible thing, however if youre like me or any other person that wants a fairly good mark on the next assignment, procrastinating can help you. While your friends are working hard on it, go play, and do the thing...

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Physician-assisted Suicide is Murder Essay -- Euthanasia Essay

Jeanette Hall once had the desire to die a desire so strong, she even asked her doctor for help. Jeanette lives in Oregon, where assisted suicide is legal. On July 17, 2000, Jeanette was rushed to the Portland hospital still to be given a maximum time of survival six months. She had been diagnosed with an inoperable form of colon cancer. Jeanette had a apprehension of losing her job, not being able to care for her loved ones, paying hospital bills, and suffering. It was her choice to die and was prepared to reject chemotherapy and radiation, scarce thankfully, Jeanettes doctor, Dr. Kenneth Stevens, encouraged her to fight. Jeanette claims, If he Dr. Stevens believed in physician-assisted suicide, I would not be here 13 years later to thank him, I would be dead (Hall 1). Today, Jeanette is alive, happy, and healthy and speaks out against legalization, but because of the current legalization of physician-assisted suicide, she barely survived.Physician-assisted suicide and eu thanasia are similar in the fact that they end lives of terminally ill patients, but they vary on where they are legalized. In 1997, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that there is no constitutionally protected right to physician-assisted suicide but left it to the individual states to mould physician-assisted death (Ardelt 1). Although states still have the option to legalize assisted suicide, the federal government has made euthanasia illegal in every state. Euthanasia is only legal in Belgium and the Netherlands (Somerville 1). Euthanasia refers to the practice of ending the life of another person to relieve pain and suffering and is usually performed by a doctor. reasoned in Montana, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington to terminal adults, physician-assisted su... ...s, 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.Rockett, Barbara. Physician-assisted Suicide in Direct Conflict with Doctors Role. National Rights To Life News. National Rights to Life News, 1 Aug. 2012. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.Saad, Lydia. U.S. Support for Euthanasia Hinges on How Its Described. U.S. Support for Euthanasia Hinges on How Its Described. Gallup, 29 whitethorn 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.Somerville, Margaret. What Would We Lose by Legalising Euthanasia? American Proadcasting Corporation, 24 May 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.Sunday Dialogue Choosing How We Die. The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 Mar. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.Swarte, Nikki B. Effects of Euthanasia on the Bereaved Family and Friends A Cross Sectional Study. Home. BMJ, 17 June 2003. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.The Impact of Euthanasia on Society. Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.

Physician-assisted Suicide is Murder Essay -- Euthanasia Essay

Jeanette Hall once had the desire to die a desire so strong, she even asked her doctor for help. Jeanette lives in Oregon, where assisted suicide is legal. On July 17, 2000, Jeanette was rushed to the Portland hospital only to be given a maximum time of survival six months. She had been diagnosed with an inoperable impress of colon cancer. Jeanette had a fear of losing her job, not being able to care for her loved ones, paying hospital b biliouss, and suffering. It was her choice to die and was prepared to reject chemotherapy and radiation, still thankfully, Jeanettes doctor, Dr. Kenneth Stevens, encouraged her to fight. Jeanette claims, If he Dr. Stevens believed in physician-assisted suicide, I would not be here 13 years later to thank him, I would be loose (Hall 1). Today, Jeanette is alive, happy, and healthy and speaks out against legalization, only if because of the current legalization of physician-assisted suicide, she barely survived.Physician-assisted suicide an d euthanasia are similar in the fact that they end lives of terminally ill patients, but they vary on where they are legalized. In 1997, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that there is no constitutionally protected right to physician-assisted suicide but left it to the individual states to regulate physician-assisted death (Ardelt 1). Although states still have the option to legalize assisted suicide, the federal government has made euthanasia illegal in every state. euthanasia is only legal in Belgium and the Netherlands (Somerville 1). Euthanasia refers to the practice of ending the life of another person to relieve pain and suffering and is unremarkably performed by a doctor. Legal in Montana, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington to terminal adults, physician-assisted su... ...s, 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.Rockett, Barbara. Physician-assisted Suicide in Direct Conflict with Doctors Role. case Rights To Life News. National Rights to Life News, 1 Aug. 2012. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.Saad, Ly dia. U.S. Support for Euthanasia Hinges on How Its Described. U.S. Support for Euthanasia Hinges on How Its Described. Gallup, 29 May 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.Somerville, Margaret. What Would We Lose by Legalising Euthanasia? American Proadcasting Corporation, 24 May 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.Sunday Dialogue Choosing How We Die. The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 Mar. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.Swarte, Nikki B. Effects of Euthanasia on the Bereaved Family and Friends A Cross Sectional Study. Home. BMJ, 17 June 2003. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.The Impact of Euthanasia on Society. Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.

Monday, May 27, 2019

The Astronomer’s

Mrs.. Ames. He rarely speaks or even listens to her. He is totally unconcerned with everything that goes on in his home, and leaves all the maneuver for her to do. Belle uses comparisons among a plumber and Katherine husband-?Mr.. Ames silence, the plumbers interaction with her, and her response to the plumber-?to show the loneliness of the wife throughout the story. Belle shows Katherine loneliness early on in the story. The lines, Her eyes were gray, for the wakeful had been extinguished in them (Belle Para. ) shows he reader an run into of the wife, and the effect the loneliness has had on her. Her husband spends a lot of time awake at night, and relaxation during the day. That leaves little time to spend with his wife. Mrs.. Ames and her husbands interactions become few and far between until they become nonexistent. Having little to no interaction with her husband has left her feeling unloved. exactly one day, a plumber comes to her house to fix the drain. The plumber notic es how beautiful she is, and how she is starving for attention and care. The plumber himself looked up and saw Mrs..Ames with her voice hushed, speaking to him. She was a youngish woman, but she had forgotten. The plumber takes advantage of the astronomer and begins to flirt with Mrs.. Ames. The plumber begins to speak to her in a way that Mr.. Ames has never spoken to her before. This was speech that stirred her flesh and bone and made her wonder. When her husband spoke of height, having no sense of it, she could not picture it nor hear. Depth or magic passed her by unless a physique were given. But madness in a daily shape, as elbow stopped, she saw clearly and well.She sat down on the grasses, bewildered that it should be a man who had spoken to her so. (Belle Para. 36) This section shows Mrs.. Ames amazement at the manner at which the plumber is talking to her. She is not used to being spoken to in such a kind and relatable way. It is clear that Mrs.. Ames is lone(a) and is looking for companionship that her husband has not given her. The last lines in The Astronomers Wife give the reader an image of Mrs.. Ames walking into the drain with the plumber. ooh, said the astronomers wife in wonder as she stepped into the heart of the earth.She took his arm, knowing that what he said was true. (Belle Para 50) The Plumber reached out to her when she felt up unwanted by her husband. This image can be taken as her taking one step away from her husband and going with the plumber. The plumber is a breakthrough to Mrs.. Ames as she realizes her worth as a woman due to the attention the plumber gives her. It is obvious that there is going to be an affair between the plumber and Mrs.. Ames, which is wrong and will subsequently lead to the collapse of her current marriage. Throughout this story, the readers can see that Mrs..Ames is dissatisfied with her husband and life. Mrs.. Ames interactions with the plumber show how lonely she is because her husbands silence. The cause of the problem is the bad relationship that has been between the two for a long time, primarily caused by Mr.. Ames distantness. The lack of communication between her and Mr.. Ames causes her to look elsewhere for the affection she wants. Without these comparisons between the plumber and the astronomer and their interaction with Katherine, The Astronomers wife would lose its theme of love or lack thereof.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Ceo Safety Policy Statement

Safety Policy Statement a. Safety is paramount in every last(predicate) flight operations. fraternity X manages skillfulty risks related to its operations to as low a level as reasonably practicable. Company X exit manage safety through its dedicated commitment to implement and maintain Company Xs Safety Management System. This commitment includes the responsibility of both Company Xs management and employees to around-the-clockly improve the level of safety and never to become complacent when it comes to the safety of Company Xs operations.It is the joint responsibility of everyone connected within the flight operation to be proactive and ensure only safety hazards be identified, analyzed and, where possible, eliminated or avoided. When this is not possible, mitigation is developed, implemented and tracked to verify that the level of the associated risks argon acceptable. It will also be the commitment of both management and of all employees to comply with all applicable regu latory requirements when conducting Company Xs Operation. . The purpose of the safety policy is to manage safety proactively and effectively. This is attained by utilizing the Company X SMS to i. nominate and manage safety risks specific to the companys flight operations. ii. Encourage employees to report safety issues without the fear of reprisal. iii. Collect and analyze information and feedback through the continuous improvement system so as to continually improve safety management activities. iv.When safety issues are discovered it is assumed that both management and the employees cast shared responsibility and accountability in finding ways to fix the safety issues and in ensuring that the prescribed procedures to fix the problems are carried out and also to friend notify the Director of Safety as to whether these procedures are working or not. v. Both management and the employees are expected to follow all safety procedures and policies of Company X including the reporting of all safety issues and hazards to the Director of Safety. i. The SMS program will also provide management guidance for implementing new procedures and processes to ensure that a spunky level of safety is maintained when these new procedures and policies are carried out. vii. The Director of Safety reviewing Company Xs safety objectives each month to ensure they are on-going and still applicable to Company Xs Operations. The Director of Safety will ensure that any safety objectives not meeting current safety standards and goals will be revised as necessary. c.Company Xs safety policy also requires the full reinforcer of safety from carousel level management. Flight crew members, aircraft maintenance personal and others involved in the operation of Company X will always have the full support of the CEO as long as they operate professionally in accordance with company manuals and procedures. All company personnel have a trading to openly and honestly report events and hazards us ing the continuous improvement system. The CEO will ensure that all such reports will be thoroughly investigated in a non-punitive manner.The CEO of the company is ultimately responsible for i. Sustaining conditions that promote the safe operation of company aircraft, ii. Ensuring that all safety related company positions, responsibilities and authorities are defined, documented and communicated throughout the company. iii. Define and publish which levels of management can make safety risk acceptance decisions in regards to company operations. iv. Providing the resources (in time and money) to assure the safe operation of company aircraft, and v. Actively supports the Safety Management System.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Building a Data Warehouse Essay

Starbucks is a company that is specialized in offering a range of products including coffee, handcrafted beverages, merchandise, and fresh food. As an enterprise, they require a right selective selective information management to enable them serve their customers efficiently. Data on sales, customer gulls, customer information, market analytics, products, and production needs a proper storage and recuperation system hence the use of data w behousing. To make informed decisions, the management at all the levels within the company requires data analysis to make those decisions.The coffee berry Company has a mesh place for buying their coffee products, as well as gifts, and explores the coffee world by learning more about its origin. The data storage storage warehouse stores are built using SQL Server 2000 that stores information about the occurrences on the website. Business Desk reports enable membering of data imported from the website. Several steps are involved in exportin g these data. The first step is reporting that is provided through Business Desk. These data includes weblog data, user profile information, campaign information, catalog information and accomplishment data (Microsoft, 2000). Data cubes are prepared by running the report surgical procedureing tasks. The Business Desk is secured and can exclusively be accessed by Starbucks Corporate networks and allows only Secure Socket connections. Reports that resides on the data warehouse server can be accessed and viewed through from the billet application.To plan the data warehouse at Starbucks, three aspects of the site must be taken into consideration. The storage, processing, and bandwidth requirements are the elements needed to deploy the data warehouse. The storage requirements consider the amount of space required for web log files. The reduce of servers, web log file sizes per server per day and total log file sizes must be known in advance for the data warehouse planning. After som e clock, these accumulated preferably three months, archiving should be done on old data to ensure that the business users will be able to view and run historical data. Since the data is imported from the website, processing time is of great importance to the success of the warehouse. Therefore, time to import web log files and processing time of web log files into analysis cubes is necessary for planning purposes. Lastly, consideration of bandwidth requirements is done before deploying the data warehouse. For example, the data bandwidth used will be for moving the web log files. Also considered is the bandwidth required for actual running of the reports.The process of creating a data warehouse is procedural. It begins by building a business model followed by definition of the requirements of each model. Identification of data sources is carried out after business modeling. The process of building the data warehouse is done after the selection of data warehouse tools (Vincent, 2007) . Data collection through asking the question about the performance of the company will help identify data to appear on the data warehouse. Reports from time reporting system, accounting packages, and customer relationship management application are other important sources. Designers of the data warehouse have to discovery a way of harmonizing these data with the knowledge of how people process information within the company.In making the decisions, the data within the system are retrieved for analysis. This process is known as ancestry. It is defined as the process of retrieving data from a source for use in the data warehouse environment. The extracted data can indeed be transformed and finally loaded into storage. The primary internal data sources for a data warehouse in Starbucks is the transaction processing application. Data extraction methods are of two types that include full luculent and physical extraction method and depend on the business requirements, performance and source system. In logical extraction method, there are two subdivisions, complete extraction, and incremental extraction. Full removal is where the data is completely extracted from the system source files. No additional information is necessary on the site. The second data extraction method is the physical extraction method. Physical extraction is of two types, online and offline extraction. Online mining, extraction is directly from the source files. The process of extraction can directly connect either source tables or the intermediate data store. The latter, offline extraction, is where data is sourced outside the source files.ConclusionFor a atomic number 82 international company like Starbucks, planning, building and maintenance of a data warehouse are very critical and requires technical expertise. The building process requires cooperation from IT and business people in order to come up with a successful data warehouse. For implementation purposes, it requires coordination by all stakeholders to highlight all the requirements, needs, and tasks. Breaking plenty of the data collected enables incorporation of all the requirement to appear on the data warehouse.ReferencesBIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 Microsoft. (2000). Starbucks technical deployment guide. Microsoft.Vincent. (2007). Building a Data Warehouse. Apress.Source written document

Friday, May 24, 2019

Loganivllle high school Essay

A persons identity is simply who they are. Different aspects of invigoration can shape the way you define your own identity. In their article, Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni explain that a persons identity is shaped when they go off to college. Their beliefs play that a four stratum college prepares scholars to seek their identity much so than a 2 year college. Another article, written by Silvia Santos, Anna Ortiz, Alejandro Morales, and Monica order order Rosales addresses identity. It correlates campus diversity with students ethnic identity. They ultimately argue that campus diversity allows a more powerful insight to atomic number 53s identity.While both articles look at the way colleges influence students to look for their identities, one article conceptualizes adulterous influence it and the other believes it is the multi diversity of the college. twain group of authors would conclude from their findings that students enrolled at four year school will be more involved in searching for their identity. Both studies hint that a mavin of belonging is related to a college students feel of their identity. For a large number of students, campus diversity was a positive and enriching experience that fostered a greater sense ofbelonging and feelings of inclusion and acceptation (Santos, Morales, Ortiz and Rosales 107).Tsai and Fuligni write, Interactions with students from various backgrounds at diverse colleges may also promote search of and belonging to ones own ethnic group (58). Both authors agree that a sense of belonging is always needed in establishing your own identity. The major difference between the group of authors is their belief on the cause of going to a diverse campus and being involved in extracurricular activities. Tsai an Fuligni believe that extracurricular activities drives the student to start looking into their identity, while Santos,Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that going to a diverse campus causes the students to seek thei r identity.Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni focus their research on the fact that being involved with extracurricular activities helps strengthen emotional wellness through with(predicate) engaging in ethnic identity (57). The authors explain by engaging in extracurricular activities students encounter different ethnic backgrounds that illuminate differences in their civilization raising ethnic identity issues. (62). The authors believe that being involved with extracurricular activities is what ignites astudent into their ethnic search.This involvement in extracurricular activities depends mostly on whether or not the student goes to a 2 year or 4 year school. A 4 year school offers more extracurricular activities than a 2 year school will. Because of this, students at 4-year colleges were engaged in greater levels of ethnic search and exhibited marginally higher levels of ethnic belonging than did students at 2-year colleges (Tsai and Fuligni 62). On the other hand Santos, Morales, O rtiz, and Rosales focus their research on campus diversity.They write, A diversecampus environment encouraged a more mature and evolving sense of ethnic identity in some students (108). A student feels more comfortable having similar ethnic identities surrounding them to further explore them with their peers (Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales 108). Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales tend to develop their study more around the race aspect of the college students. They write, The interview sample was composed of 29% White, 26% Latino, 22% African American, and 23% Asian (106). On the other hand Tsai and Fuligni focused their ideas on what type of college the students chose and where they would be living.Both group of authors made assumptions around these different factors that significantly venture the development of the students ethnic identity. Also, the authors used different methods of researching to find their answers. Tsai and Fuligni write, In the 12th grade, students compl eted questionnaires during school that assessed various domains including identity, academic achievement, and wellbeing (59). Participants also provided their contact information, including their business firm address, phone number, email, and contact information of two people who would likely know their whereabouts.The students were asked a series of questions that corresponded with their ethnic identity. Then, two years later, there was a act on up with the same students on these questions to see how their experiences changed (59). Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales used a bit of a different approach. The authors used actual college students, and the experiment was only conducted one time. They write, Semistructured interviews were used to provide a holistic picture of the meaning of ethnic identity for students attending multiethnic universities.The interview protocol consistedof 13 questions and related probes that tapped into the hobby content areas (a) ethnic identificatio n, (b) personal meaning of ethnicity, (c) expressions of ethnicity, (d) influences of interethnic interactions on ethnicity, and (e) socio historical forces that have impinged on ethnic identity (106).One can conclude that these questions focused more directly on diversity rather than college type and involved activities. Santos, Morals, Ortiz, and Rosales conclude that campus diversity is benign in helping a student mold their identity, while Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in extracurricularactivities ignites a students will to explore their ethnic identity. Both group of authors went about different ways to explore how college students interact and develop their identities.All of them would agree that 4 year schools provide more campus diversity than a 2 year school. Furthermore, Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in activities outside of school sparks their insight to their identities. On the other hand, Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that student s who go to a college with diversity are more inclined to develop their identity.Nomatter their similarities or differences though, both group of authors gave the readers a strong understanding of why college students seek their identity. Works Cited Monica Rosales, et al. The Relationship Between Campus Diversity, Students Ethnic Identity And College fitting A Qualitative Study. Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology 13. 2 (2007) 104-114. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. Tsai, Kim M. , and Andrew J. Fuligni. Change In Ethnic Identity Across The College Transition. developmental Psychology 48. 1 (2012) 56-64. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Changing Media, Changing China

changing media, changing china This page intention completely(prenominal)y left blank CHANGING MEDIA, CHANGING CHINA Edited by Susan L. diddle 2011 Oxford University Press, Inc. , publishes kick the buckets that farthestther Oxford Universitys objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City capital of Kenya New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Re theme France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore S push throughh Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine VietnamCopyright 2011 by Susan L. Shirk Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 www. oup. com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this semi humankindation may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval arranging, or transmitted, in a ny form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or oppositewise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication selective selective information ever-changing media, changing mainland mainland china / edited by Susan L. Shirk. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-19-975198-3 978-0-19-975197-6 (pbk. ) 1. Mass mediamainland mainland mainland chinaw ar. 2. Mass media and culture china. I. Shirk, Susan L. P92. C5C511 2010 302. 230951dc22 2010012025 1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2 Printed in the United raises of America on acid-free paper Contents 1. Changing Media, Changing China 1 Susan L. Shirk 2. Chinas Emerging Public Sphere The Impact of Media Commercialization, Professionalism, and the internet in an term of Transition 38 Qian Gang and David Bandurski 3. The Rise of the Business Media in China Hu Shuli 4. Between Propaganda and Commercials Chinese Television Today 91 Miao Di 5.Envi ronmental Journalism in China Zhan Jiang 115 77 6. Engineering Human Souls The Development of Chinese troops Journalism and the Emerging Defense Media Market 128 Tai Ming Cheung 7. Changing Media, Changing Courts 150 Benjamin L. Liebman 8. What Kind of Information Does the Public Demand? Getting the intelligence service during the 2005 Anti-Japanese Protests 175 Daniela Stockmann 9. The Rise of Online Public Opinion and Its Political Impact 202 Xiao Qiang 10. Changing Media, Changing Foreign Policy Susan L. Shirk Acknowledgments 253 Contributors 255 Index 259 225 vi Content 1 Changing Media, Changing China Susan L.Shirk ver the past thirty years, the leading of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) decl argon relinquished their monopoly e really(prenominal)place the information reaching the public. fount in 1979, they allowed modspapers, pickups, and television set and radio displace to support themselves by selling advertisements and competing in the marketplace. Then in 1993 , they funded the construction of an internet network. The economic logic of these decisions was straightforward requiring tidy sum media organizations to ? nance their operations through with(predicate) commercial message activities would reduce the organisations burden and stand by modernize Chinas economy.And the meshing would help catapult the country into the ranks of technologically advanced nations. But slight clear is whether Chinas leaders anticipated the profound organisational repercussions that would follow. This collection of essays explores how transformations in the information environmentstimulated by the potent combination of commercial media and Internet are changing China. The essays are written by Western China experts, as well as by pioneering journalists and experts from China, who write from personal experience intimately how television, watchword programpapers, magazines, and mesh-establish wises award program sites navigate the some(preno minal) fourth dimensions treacherous crosscurrentsO betwixt the market and CCP inhibits. Although they stir different types of media, the essays share common themes and subjects the explosion of information made available to the public through market-oriented and Internet-based countersign comes how mountain seek credible information how the communitybetter informed than ever beforeis making new demands on goernment how formaliseds react to these demands the ambivalence of the leaders as to the bene? s and risks of the free ? ow of information, as well as their instinctive and strenuous efforts to shape public stamp by controlling content and the airs in which journalists and Netizens are evading and resisting these controls. Following a brief retrenchment subsequently the Tiananmen crackdown on student demonstrators in June 1989, the commercialization of the mass media picked up steam in the 1990s. 1 Today, newspapers, magazines, television stations, and news Web sites compete ? rcely for audiences and advertising revenue. After half a century of being force-fed CCP propaganda and starved of in truth information about domestic and international events, the Chinese public has a voracious appetite for news. This appetite is intimately apparent in the egression of Internet access and the Web,2 which drive multiplied the amount of information available, the potpourri of sources, the timeliness of the news, and the national and international reach of the news.China has more than than 384 million Internet occasionrs, more than any other country, and an astounding 145 million bloggers. 3 The nearly dramatic effect of the Internet is how fast it digest spread information, which in issue helps skirt official banishship. Because of its speed, the Internet is the ? rst place news appears it sets the agenda for other media. Chinese Internet users learn almost instantaneously about events happening overseas and throughout China.Thanks to the major n ews Web sites that compile articles from ms of sources, including television, newspapers and magazines, and online publications bid blogs, and circle them widely, a toxic waste site or corruption scandal in any Chinese city or a politicians speech in Tokyo or Washington becomes headline news across the country. Other complementary technologies, such as cell phones, amplify the impact of the Internet. Millions of people get news bulletins text messaged automatically to their cell phones. China is nonetheless still a capacious way from having a free reduce.As of 2008, China stood close to the bottom of world rankings of freedom of the press 181 out of 195 countriesas assessed by the international nongovernmental organization (NGO) Freedom House. 4 Freedom House withal gives a low 2 Changing Media, Changing China score to Chinas Internet freedom78 on a photographic plate from 1 to 100, with 100 being the worst. 5 The CCP continues to oversee, censor, and manufacture the conten t of the mass mediaincluding the Webalthough at a much higher cost and less thoroughly than before the proliferation of news sources.During chairperson Hu Jintaos second term, which began in 2007, the party ramped up its efforts to manage this new information environment. What at ? rst regarded standardised temporary measures to foresee destabilizing protests in the lead-up to the 2008 Olympics and during the twentieth anniversary of the Tiananmen crackdown and other governmental anniversaries in 2009 now seem to give way become a permanent strategy. Apparently the CCP allow for do whatever it takes to beget sure that the information reaching the public through the commercial media and the Internet does non inspire people to challenge party rule.Information prudence has become a source of serious friction in Chinas relations with the United States and other Western countries. In 2010, Google, reacting to cyber attacks originating in China and the Chinese governments inten si? ed controls over free speech on the Internet, threatened to aspirate out of the country unless it was allowed to operate an un? ltered Chinese terminology search locomotive. 6 (Beijing had required Google to ? lter out material the Chinese government considers politically sensitive as a condition of doing barter in China. lodge days subsequently, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, in a speech about the Internet and freedom of speech that had been planned before Googles announcement and that did not focus on China or the Google controversy, articulated Internet freedom as an explicit goal of American outside policy. 7 The Chinese government was stunned and alarmed by the Google announcement. Googles challenge did not just sully Chinas international reputation it withal threatened to garner a dangerous domestic backlash. A senior propaganda official I interviewed expressed dismay that Google executives had made a high-pro? e threat instead of exploitation the great rel ationship the Propaganda Department had established with company executives. A Beijing academic heard a senior official say that the government was treating the Google crisis as the digital version of June 4, referring to the Tiananmen crisis, which almost brought down Communist Party rule in 1989. In the ? rst twenty-four hours after Googles dramatic statement, angry and mad Netizens crowded into chat rooms to applaud Googles defense Changing Media, Changing China 3 of free information.Google has only a 2530 percent share of the search engine business in Chinathe Chinese-owned Baidu has been favored by the government and most consumersbut Google is strongly preferred by the members of the highly educated ur expel elite. 8 To prevent the controversy from stirring up opposition from this in? uential assembly, the Propaganda Department went to work. Overnight, the dominant opinion appearing on the Internet suited 180 degrees against Google and the United States. 9 The pro-Google me ssages disappeared and were replaced by accusations against the U.S. government for colluding with Google to subvert Chinese sovereignty through its information imperialism, thereby creating suspicions that more of the new gameings were bogus. The Propaganda Department asked enjoyed Chinese academics to submit supportive newspaper essays, and provided ghostwriters. Online news portals were required to devote space on their front pages to the governments counterattacks. To defy itself against the threat of a large-scale safari of Google devotees, the CCP fell back on anti-American nationalism.In March 2010 Google followed through on its threat and moved its search engine to Hong Kong as a result, the Chinese government and not Google now does the ? ltering. Despite the unique features of the Google case, international as well as domestic con? icts over censorship are likely to be repeated as the party struggles to shape an increasingly pluralistic information environment. In her reserve Media Control in China, originally publish in 2004 by the international NGO Human Rights in China, journalist He Qinglian lambasts the CCP for its limits on press freedom. She describes Chinese journalists as bound in shackles. so far she as well as credits commercialization with opening a gap in the Chinese governments control of the news media. 10 Indeed, the competition for audiences provides a strong motivation for the press to break a news report before the propaganda administration can implement a exile on reporting itand it has provided an unprecedented space for protest, as was seen in the initial wave of pro-Google commentary. Caught between commercialization and control, journalists play a cat and mouse feeble with the censors, a dynamic that is vividly depicted in the case studies in this book.Even partially relinquish control of the mass media transforms the strategic interaction between rulers and the public in authoritarian political systems like Chi na. Foreigners tend to dwell on the way the Chinese propaganda cops are continuing to censor the media, but an equally primary(prenominal) 4 Changing Media, Changing China part of the story is the exponential expansion of the amount of information available to the public and how this is changing the political bouncy deep down China. That change is the subject of this book.OFFICIAL AMBIVALENCE As journalist Qian Gang and his coauthor David Bandurski argue in chapter 2, Chinese leaders feed a heavy ambivalence toward the commercial media and the Internet they recognize its potential bene? ts as well as its risks. Xiao Qiang, in chapter 9, uses the same term to describe the attitude of Chinese government toward the Internet. By choosing to give up some degree of control over the media, the rulers of authoritarian countries like China make a trade-off. Most obviously, they gain the bene? t of economic development the market operates more efficiently when people postulate better i nformation.But they similarly are gambling that they lead reap political bene? ts that relinquishing control of the media will set off a dynamic that will result in the improvement of the governments performance and ultimately, they hope, in alter its common support. The media improve governance by providing more accurate information regarding the preferences of the public to policymakers. National leaders also use media as a watchdog to monitor the actions of subordinate officials, particularly at the topical anesthetic anesthetic anaesthetic level, so they can identify and try to ? x problems before they provoke popular unrest.Competition from the commercial media further drives the official media and the government itself to become more transparent to preserve its credibility, the government must release more information than it ever did before. In all these slipway, the modify media environment improves the responsiveness and transparency of governance. Additionally, a freer press can help earn international approval. On the other hand, surrendering control over information creates heartbreaking political risks. It puts new demands on the government that it may not be able to satisfy, and it could reveal to the public the divisions behind the facade of party unity.Diminished control also provides an opening for political opposition to emerge. What most worries CCP leadersand what motivates them to continue investing heavily in mechanisms to control media contentis the potential that a free information environment provides for organizing a challenge to their rule. The Chinese leaders fear of Changing Media, Changing China 5 free-? owing information is not mere paranoia some comparative social science research indicates that allowing coordination goods like press freedom and civil liberties signi? antly reduces the odds for authoritarian regimes to survive in power. 11 What is the connection between information and antigovernment collective action? The more repressive a regime, the more dangerous it is to coordinate and engage in collective action to change that regime. separately individual dares to participate only if the risk of participating is outweighed by the potential bene? ts. One way to minimize the risk is the anonymity afforded by large numbers. stand on Tiananmen Square carrying an antiregime sign is an act of political suicide if you are alone.It only makes sense to demonstrate if you know that a crowd will turn out. Even before the Internet was created, news stories could create focal points for mobilizing mass protests. Cell phones and the Internet are even more useful for coordinating group action as they provide anonymity to the organizers and facilitate two-way communication of umpteen to many. In April 1999, approximately ten thousand devotees of the Falun Gong spiritual faction used cell phones and the Internet to secretly organize a sit-in that surrounded the CCP and government leadership compound in Beijing.A decade before, the fax auto was the communication technology that made it possible for students to organize pro-democracy protests in Beijings Tiananmen Square and more than 130 other cities. As the chapters in this book detail, in recent years a combination of newspaper reports, Internet communication tools, and cell phones has enabled student protests against Japan, demonstrations against rural land seizures, and protests against environmentally damaging industrial projects.The political possibilities of the latest social networking technologies like Twitter (a base of operationsgrown Chinese version is FanFou), Facebook (a Chinese version is Xiaonei), or the videosharing program YouTube (a Chinese version is Youku) reserve yet to be amply tested in China. 12 As Michael Suk-Young Chwe points out in his book Rational Ritual, media communication and other elements of culture make coordination possible by creating common knowledge that gives each person the knowledge th at others welcome get the same message. 3 When all news was communicated through official media, it was used to mobilize support for CCP policies hence, the CCP had few worries about popular opposition. Thomas Schelling made this point with a characteristically apt analogy The participants of a material dance may all be thoroughly dissatis? ed with 6 Changing Media, Changing China the particular dances being called, but as long as the caller has the microphone, nobody can dance anything else. 14 As the number and variety of microphones confirm increased, so have the force of public opinion and the risk of bottom-up mass action.The CCP propaganda authorities may have been reading Schelling A June 2009 heaps Daily commentary titled The Microphone Era says, In this Internet era, everyone can be an information channel and a principal of opinion expression. A ? gurative comparison is that everybody now has a microphone in front of him. 15 Examples like the 2009 antigovernment protes ts in Iran and the so-called color revolutions in agent Soviet states, as well as their own experiences, make Chinese politicians afraid that the free ? ow of information through the new media could threaten their rule.But it is worth considering the other mishap, namely, that the Internet might actually impede a successful subverter movement because venting online is a safer option than taking to the streets and the de aboriginalized nature of online communication splinters movements instead of integrating them into effective revolutionary organizations. 16 Nevertheless, Chinas leaders are too nervous to risk completely ceding control of information. MASS MEDIA IN TOTALITARIAN CHINA In the prereform era, China had no journalism as we know it, only propaganda.Highly conscious of public opinion, the CCP devoted a huge amount of resources to managing popular views of all issues. 17 In CCP lingo, the media were called the throat and tongue of the party their sole purpose was to mobil ize public support by acting as loudspeakers for CCP policies. 18 The Chinese public cleard all of its highly homogenous information from a small number of officially controlled sources. As of 1979, there were only sixty-nine newspapers in the entire country, all run by the party and government. 9 The standard template consisted of photos and headlines glorifying local anesthetic anesthetic and national leaders on the front page, and invariably positive reports written in shapeic, ideological prose inside. Local news stories of interest such as ? res or crimes were almost never reported. What little foreign news was provided had to be based on the dispatches of the governments Xinhua News Agency. People read the Peoples Daily and other official newspapers in the morning at work offices and factories were required to have subscriptions.The 7 p. m. news on Changing Media, Changing China 7 China Central Television (CCTV) simply rehashed what had been in the Peoples Daily. 20 Newspap er editorials and commentaries were read aloud by strident voices over ubiquitous radio loudspeakers and whence(prenominal) used as materials for obligatory political study sessions in the workplace. A steady diet of propaganda depoliticized the public. As political scientist Ithiel de Sola Pool observed, When regimes impose daily propaganda in large doses, people s crystalize listening. 21 CCP members, government officials, and politically sophisticated intellectuals, however, had to remain attentive. To get the information they needed to do their jobsand to survive during the campaigns to criticize individuals who had made ideological mistakes that periodically swept through the bureaucraciesthe elite deciphered the coded language of the official media by reading between the lines. Sometimes this esoteric communication was intended as a signal from the blanket CCP leaders to subordinates about an impending change in the official line. 2 Kremlinology and Pekinology developed int o a high art not only in foreign intelligence agencies, but also within Soviet and Chinese government circles themselves. In chapter 8, Daniela Stockmann describes survey research that she completed which shows that government officials and people who work with the government continue to read the official press to track policy trends. A diet consisting solely of official propaganda left people craving trustworthy sources of information. 23 As in all totalitarian states, a wide information gap divided the top leaders from the public.Senior officials enjoyed ample access to the international media and an all-inclusive system of internal intelligence gathered by news organizations and other bureaucracies (called neican in Chinese). But the vast majority of the public was left to rely on rumors picked up at the teahouse and personal observations of their neighborhoods and workplaces. (In modern democracies, the information gap between officialdom and the public has disappeared almost e ntirely U. S. government officials keep television sets on in their offices and learn about international events ? st from CNN, not from internal sources. ) MEDIA REFORM Beginning in the early 1980s, the structure of Chinese media changed. Newspapers, magazines, and television stations received cuts in their government subsidies and were driven to enter the market and to earn revenue. 8 Changing Media, Changing China In 1979 they were permitted to sell advertising, and in 1983 they were allowed to view as the pro? ts from the sale of ads. Because people were eager for information and businesses wanted to advertise their products, pro? ts were good and the number of publications grew rapidly.As Qian Gang and David Bandurski note in chapter 2, the commercialization of the media quicken after 2000 as the government sought to strengthen Chinese media organizations to withstand competition from foreign media companies. By 2005, China make more than two thousand newspapers and nine tho usand magazines. 24 In 2003, the CCP eliminated mandatory subscriptions to official newspapers and ended subsidies to all but a few such papers in every province. Even nationally circulated, official papers like Peoples Daily, Guangming Daily, and Economics Daily are now s sure-enough(a) at retail horse barn and compete for audiences.According to their editors, Guangming Daily sells itself as a spiritual homeland for intellectuals Economics Daily markets its timely economic reports and the Peoples Daily promotes its authoritativeness. 25 just about a dozen commercial newspapers with national circulations of over 1 million readers are printed in multiple locations throughout the country. The southern province of Guangdong is the headquarters of the streetwise commercial media, with three newspaper groups ? ercely competing for audiences. Nanjing now has ? e newspapers competing for the evening readership. People buy the new tabloids and magazines on the newsstands and read them at home in the evening. though almost all of these commercial publications are part of media groups led by party or government newspapers, they look and sound completely different. In line of credit to the stilted and formulaic language of official publications, the language of the commercial press is lively and colloquial. Because of this difference in style, people are more apt to moot that the content of commercial media is true.Daniela Stockmanns research shows that consumers seek out commercial publications because they consider them more credible than their counterparts from the official media. According to her research, even in Beijing, which has a particularly large proportion of government employees, only about 36 percent of residents read official papers such as the Peoples Daily the rest read only semiofficial or commercialized papers. Advertisers and many of the commercial media groups target young and middle-aged urbanites who are well-educated, affluent consumers.But pu blications also seek to differentiate themselves and appeal to speci? c Changing Media, Changing China 9 audiences. The Guangdong-based publications use domestic muckraking to inveigle a business-oriented, cosmopolitan audience. Because they thrust the limits on domestic political reportingtheir editors are ? red and replaced frequentlythey have built an audience of liberal-minded readers outside Guangdong Province. According to its editors, gray Weekend (Nanfang Zhoumo), published by the Nanfang Daily group under the Guangdong Communist Party Committee, considered one of the most critical and politically in? ential commercial newspapers, has a larger news bureau and greater circulation in politically charged Beijing than it does in southern China. 26 The Communist Youth Leagues popular national newspaper, China Youth Journal, has been a commercial success because it appeals to Chinas yuppies, the style-conscious younger generation with money to spend. The national foreign affair s newspaper, Global Times, tries to attract the same demographic by its often sensational nationalistic reporting of international affairs, as I discuss in chapter 10.Media based out of Shanghai, the journalistic capital of China before the communist victory in 1949, are comparatively very dull and quiet, according to Chinese media critics. The cause they cite is that the citys government has been slow to relinquish control. 27 Shanghai audiences prefer Southern Weekend, Global Times, and Nanjings Yangtze Evening News to Shanghai-based papers, and Hunan television to their local stations. 28 Journalists now think of themselves as professionals instead of as agents of the government.Along with all the other changes referred to above, this role change began in the late 1970s. Chinese journalists started to travel, study abroad, and encounter real journalists. The crusading former editor in chief of the magazine Caijing (Finance and Economy) and author of chapter 3, Hu Shuli, recalls t hat before commercialization, the news media were regarded as a government organization rather than a watchdog, and those who worked with news organizations sounded more like officials than professional journalists. But our teachers . . . encouraged us to pursue careers as professional journalists. 29 Media organizations now compete for the best young talent, and outstanding journalists have been able to bid up their salaries by changing jobs frequently. Newspapers and magazines are also recruiting and offering high salaries to bloggers who have attracted large followings. Yet most journalists still receive low base salaries and are paid by the article, which makes them susceptible to corruption.Corruption ranges from small transportation subsidies and honoraria provided to reporters for coverage of government and corporate news conferences to outright 10 Changing Media, Changing China corporate bribery for positive reporting and extortion of corporations by journalists threatening to write damaging exposes (see chapter 3). Establishing professional journalistic ethics is as thorny in Chinas Wild West version of early capitalism as it was in other countries at a similar layer of development. Some journalists also have crossed over to political advocacy.In one unprecedented collective act, the national Economic Observer and twelve regional newspapers in March 2010 published a sharply worded joint editorial calling on Chinas legislature, the National Peoples Congress, to abolish the system of household residential permits (hukou) that forces migrants from the countryside to live as second-class citizens in the cities. 30 The authorities banned dissemination and discussion of the editorial but only after it had received wide distribution. At the legislative session, government leaders proposed some reforms of the hukou system, but not its abolition as demanded by the editorial.MEDIA FREEDOM AND GOVERNMENT guarantee All authoritarian governments face lowering choices about how much effort and resources to invest in controlling various forms of media. In China, as in many other nondemocracies, television is the most tightly controlled. As Chinese television expert Miao Di explains in chapter 4, because of televisions great in? uence on the public todayit is the most important source of information for the majority of the population, reaching widely into rural as well as urban areasit remains the most tightly controlled type of medium in China by propaganda departments at all administrative levels. All television stations are owned by national, provincial, municipal or county governments and used for propaganda purposes. Yet television producers must pay attention to ratings and audiences if they want to earn advertising revenue. As Miao Di puts it, television today is like a doublegendered rooster propaganda departments want it to crow while ? nance departments want it to lay eggs. The way most television producers reconcile these compet ing objectives is to produce leisurely and right entertainment programs, not hard news or commentary programs.Yet exceptions exist Hunan television has found a niche with a lively nightly news show that eliminates the anchor and is reported directly by no-necktie journalists. Changing Media, Changing China 11 In the print realm, the government controls entry to the media market by requiring every publication (including news Web sites with original content) to have a license and by limiting the number of licenses. Only a handful of newspapers, magazines, and news Web sites are completely self-governing and privately ? nanced. The rest may have some private ? ancing but remain as part of media groups headed by an official publication and subordinate to a government or CCP entity that is responsible for the news content and appoints the chief editors. The chief editor of Global Times, appointed by the editors and CCP committee of Peoples Daily, acknowledged this in my interview with him If we veer too far away from the general direction of the upper level, I will get ? red. I know that. However, there is a degree of variation. For example, magazines are somewhat more loosely controlled than newspapers, presumably because they appear less frequently and have smaller readerships.Additionally, newspapers focusing on economics and business appear to be allowed wider latitude in what they can safely report. The publication that set a new standard for bold muckraking journalism is Caijing (Finance and Economics), a privately ? nanced independent biweekly business magazine with a relatively small, elite readership. In chapter 3, former Caijing editor in chief Hu Shuli explains that the Chinese governments control of the economic news arena, both in terms of licensing and supervision, has been relatively loose when compared with control over other news . . so much so that even in the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square event of 1989, economic news was little affected by censorship, while all other kinds of news were strictly monitored and controlled. Her analysis of the emergence of ? nancial journalism in China recognizes the pathbreaking role of private entrepreneurs and professional journalists, but also credits the reform-minded economic officials who appreciate the importance of a free ? w of information for the effective functioning of a market economy. She notes that these economic officials didnt call out the CCP Propaganda Department even when Caijing broke an embarrassing scandal about the Bank of Chinas IPO in Hong Kong at the very time when the National Peoples Congress was holding its annual meeting this is considered a politically sensitive period during which the propaganda authorities usually ban all bad news. Evan Osnos, in his New Yorker pro? e of Hu Shuli, observes that the differences among senior officials on media policy may protect Caijing the magazine had gone so far already that conservative branches of the government cou ld no weeklong be sure which other officials supported it. 31 12 Changing Media, Changing China In 2010, Hu Shuli and most of the staff of Caijing resigned in a con? ict with the magazines owners over editorial control and established Caixin Media, which publishes a weekly news magazine (Century Weekly), a monthly economic review (China Reform), and a Web site (Caing. com). Caixin is the ? st media organization in China to establish a Board of Trustees to safeguard its journalistic integrity. Caijing, its reputation damaged by the mass exodus of its journalists, is seeking to recoup by publishing exciting stories such as one that urged that Hubei governor Li Hongzhong be ? red if he failed to apologize for ripping a journalists tape recorder out of her hand when she challenged him at a press conference with a question he didnt like. 32 The heated competition between the two media groups is likely to drive them to venture beyond business journalism with taboo-breaking stories that t est the tolerance of the government.Although Chinas leaders have embraced the Internet as a necessary element of the information infrastructure for a modern economy, as the size of the online public has grown, they have invested more and more heavily in controlling online content and containing its powerful potential to mobilize political opposition. The Internet offers individuals the means to learn about fast-breaking events inside and outside China, to write and disseminate their own commentaries, and to coordinate collective action like petitions, boycotts, and protests.The opinion of the Netizen (wangmin) is laden with political meaning in a system lacking other forms of democratic participation. 33 As Xiao Qiang, the UC Berkeleybased editor of China digital Times, observes in chapter 9, The role of the Internet as a communications tool is especially meaningful in China where citizens previously had little to no hazard for unconstrained public self-expression or access to fre e and uncensored information.Furthermore, these newfound freedoms have developed in spite of stringent government efforts to control the medium. From the standpoint of the CCP leaders, the Internet is the most potent media threat. Young and well-educated city dwellers, whose loyalty is crucial for the survival of CCP rule, ? ock to the Internet for information, including information from abroad. 34 That is why the CCP reacted so defensively to the Google showdown and ? rmly refuses to permit un? ltered searches.Additionally, the Internets capability for many-to-many two-way communication facilitates the coordination of collective action around the common knowledge of online information. There is no way for CCP leaders to predict whether virtual activism will serve as a harmless outlet for venting or a means to mobilize antigovernment protests in the street. Changing Media, Changing China 13 Government controls include the Great Firewall, which can block entire sites located abroad and inside China and slick technological methods to ? ter and inhibit searches for key spoken language considered subversive. But as Xiao Qiang notes in chapter 9, the governments primary strategy is to hold Internet service providers and access providers responsible for the port of their customers, so business operators have little choice but to proactively censor content on their sites. In addition, human monitors are paid to manually censor content. Ever since the Mao Zedong era, the methods used by CCP leaders to inculcate political loyalty and ideological conformity have re? cted an acute awareness that mates groups have a more powerful impact on individual attitudes than authority ? gures. It is for this reason that every Chinese citizen was required to undergo regular denunciation and self-criticism in small groups of classmates or coworkers. Todays propaganda officials are applying this insight to their management of the information environment created on the Internet. To augment its censorship methods and neutralize online critics, the CCP has introduced a system of paid Internet commentators called the Fifty-Cent Army (wu mao dang).Individuals are paid approximately ? fty cents in Chinese currency for each anonymous message they post that endorses the governments position on controversial issues. Local propaganda and Youth League officials are particularly keen to adopt this technique. 35 These messages create the judgement that the tide of social opinion supports the government, put social and psychological pressure to conform on people with critical views, and thereby presumably reduce the possibility of antigovernment collective action.The July 2009 regulation that bans news Web sites from conducting online polls on current events and requires Netizens to use their real names when posting reactions on these sites appears to have the same show of disrupting antigovernment common knowledge from forming on the Internet. 36 The large commercia l news Web sites Sina. com, Sohu. com, and Netease. com are probably the second most widely used source of information in China after television, and the ? rst place better-educated people go for their news.These sites have agreements with almost every publication in China (including some blogs) and many overseas news organizations that allow them to compile and reproduce their content and make it available to millions of readers. They are privately owned and listed on NASDAQ , but they are politically compliant, behaving more or less like arms of the government. To keep their privileged monopoly status, they cooperate closely with the State Council Information Office, which sends the managers of the 14 Changing Media, Changing China Web sites SMS text messages several times a day with guidance on which topics to avoid.The Information Office also provides a list of particularly independent publications that are not supposed to be featured on the front page. The news sites have opted to reduce their political risks by posting only hard news material that has ? rst been published elsewhere in China. Although they produce original content about such topics as entertainment, sports, and technology, they never do so with respect to news events. Furthermore, with very rare exceptions, such as the 9/11 attacks, they never publish international media accounts of news events directly on the site.Despite the CCP hovering over it, the Internet constitutes the most freewheeling media space in China because the speed and decentralized structure of online communication pose an insuperable obstacle to the censors. In Xiao Qiangs words from chapter 9, When one deals with the blogosphere and the whole Internet with its redundant connections, millions of overlapping clusters, self-organized communities, and new nodes growing in an explosive fashion, total control is nearly impossible. In the short time before a posting can be deleted by a monitor, Netizens circulate it far an d wide so it becomes widely known.For example, speeches from foreign leaders, like President Obamas inaugural address, are carefully excerpted on television and in newspapers to cast China in the most positive light. Yet on the Internet you can ? nd the full, unedited version if you are motivated to search for it. There is no longer any hope for authorities to prevent the peradventure objectionable statements about China by politicians in Washington, Tokyo, or Taipei, or the cell phone videos and photographs of crimson protests in Lhasa or Urumqi, from reaching and arousing reactions from the online public.Once news attracts attention on the Internet, the audienceseeking commercial media are likely to pick it up as well. Xiao Qiang argues that the rise of online public opinion shows that the CCP and government can no longer maintain absolute control of the mass media and information, and that the result is a power shift in Chinese society. HOW ARE THE COMMERCIAL MEDIA AND INTERNE T CHANGING Chinese POLITICS? Like all politicians, Chinese leaders are concerned ? rst and foremost about their own survival. A rival leader could try to discard them.A mass protest movement could rise up and overthrow them, especially if a rival leader Changing Media, Changing China 15 reaches out beyond the inner circle to lead such a movement. If leaders lose the support of the military, the combination of an elite split and an opposition movement could stamp out them. The trauma of 1989 came close to doing just that. Thousands of Chinese students demonstrated in Beijings Tiananmen Square and over 130 other cities, and CCP leaders disagreed on how to comprehend the demonstrations.The CCPs rule might have ended had the military refused to obey leader Deng Xiaopings order to use lethal force to disperse the demonstrators. In that same year, democracy activists brought down the Berlin Wall, and communist regimes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe began to crumble. No wonder t hat since 1989, Chinas leaders have worried that their own days in power are numbered. Because commercial journalism was still in its infancy and the Internet had not yet been built, the mass media played a more minor role in the 1989 crisis than it has since then.During the crisis, students, frustrated by what they considered the biased slant of the official press, spread the word about their movement by giving interviews to the foreign press and sending faxes abroad. One market-oriented publication, the World Economic Herald, based in Shanghai, faced down Jiang Zemin, then the party monument of the city, and published uncensored reports. The restive journalists at the Peoples Daily and other official papers, with the blessing of some liberal-minded officials in the Propaganda Department, reported freely on the student movement for a few days in May.The Communist Party leaders were almost as worried about the journalists rebellion as they were about the students one. 37 After the crackdown, party conservatives closed down several liberal newspapers including the World Economic Herald and blamed the crisis in part on the loosening controls over the press that had been introduced by former leaders Zhao Ziyang and Hu Yaobang. 38 Since Tiananmen, Chinese leaders have paid close attention to the destabilizing potential of the media.The formula for political survival that they adopted, based on their 1989 experience, focuses on three key tasks39 Prevent large-scale social unrest Avoid public leadership splits Keep the military loyal to the CCP The three dicta are interconnected if the leadership group remains cohesive despite the competition that inevitably arises within it, then the CCP and the security police can keep social unrest from spreading out of control 16 Changing Media, Changing China and the government will survive.Unless people receive some signal of permission from the top, protests will be suppressed or ? zzle out before they grow politically th reatening. But if the divisions among the top leaders come into the open as they did in 1989, people will take to the streets with little fear of punishment. Moreover, were the military leadership to split or empty the CCP, the entire regime could collapse. Though commercialization of the media and proceeds of the Internet have consequences across all three dimensions, today their effects are felt in the main in the efforts to prevent large-scale social unrest.As the chapters in this book describe, the media and Internet are changing the strategic interactions between leaders and the public as the leaders struggle to head off unrest and maintain popular support. WATCHDOG JOURNALISM HOW TO REACT WHEN THE DOG BARKS As noted earlier, the politicians at the top of the CCP are of two minds about whether the media and Internet prevent or encourage large-scale social unrest. On the positive side, the media and Internet provide information on problems so that national leaders can address them before they cause crises.But on the negative side, the market-oriented media and Internet have the subversive effect of facilitating collective action that could turn against CCP rule. The elites extreme nervousness about potential protests makes them highly responsive when the media report on a problem. The pressure to react is much greater than it was in the prereform era when the elite relied entirely on con? dential internal reporting within the bureaucracy to learn about problems on the ground. Once the media publicize an issue and the issue becomes common knowledge, then the government does not dare ignore it.Chinese journalists take particular pride in exposes that actually lead to meliorate governance and changes in policy. One of the earliest and best examples was the reporting about the 2003 death in detention of Sun Zhigang, a young college graduate who had migrated to Guangdong from his native-born Hubei Province. Qian Gang and David Bandurski, as well as Benjam in Liebman, describe in chapters 2 and 7 how the initial newspaper story published by the Southern Metropolis Daily, a bold Guangdong commercial newspaper, circulated Changing Media, Changing China 7 throughout the country on the major news Web sites and modify Suns death into a cause celebre that sparked an emotional outpouring online. This emotional outpouring in turn inspired a group of police students to take the issue of the detention and repatriation of migrants directly to the National Peoples Congress. Only two months after the ? rst article, Premier Wen Jiabao signed a State Council order abolishing the practice of detaining migrants who did not carry a special identi? ation card and shipping them back to their homes. Although such instances of actual change in policy are rare, public apologies by high-level officials in response to media criticism are becoming more common. In 2001, Premier Zhu Rongji became the ? rst PRC leader to apologize to the public for a conceal w hen he took responsibility for an explosion that killed forty-seven children and staff in a rural school where the students were manufacturing ? reworks.Premier Zhu initially had endorsed the far-fetched explanation offered by the local officials of a deranged suicide bomber. But when, despite a corrosiveout of the Chinese media, the accounts of Hong Kong and foreign journalists who had interviewed villagers by telephone spread in China over the Internet, Premier Zhu offered his apology in a televised press conference. 40 Premier Wen Jiabao has followed the example of his predecessor. He apologized for the melamine-tainted milk and infant formula that killed six and sickened hundreds of thousands of babies.The wide food preventative story was originally suppressed by propaganda authorities in the lead-up to the 2008 Olympics, but the scandal was broken by the local press in Gansu Province and the official Xinhua News Service following the games. Premier Wen also apologized for th e crippling snowstorms in January 2008 that stranded millions of Chinese eager to get home for the Spring Festival break. To de? ect blame and show how responsive it is to media revelations of official negligence or malfeasance, the central government also has sacked the senior officials implicated in such scandals.The number of such highpro? le ? rings or resignations has increased over the past decade with the growth of investigative journalism. Several good examples are described in this book. Increasingly, officials at all levels are making a conspicuous show of their receptiveness to online public opinion. They publicize their chats with Netizens. Government agencies have opened up Web sites for citizens petitions. Law enforcement officers have starting inviting Netizens to provide infor18 Changing Media, Changing China mation for their criminal investigations.In one case, a creative local propaganda official who was a former Xinhua reporter invited a number of bloggers to joi n a commission investigating the suspicious death of a prisoner. The bloggers had ridiculed as unbelievable the polices explanation that the prisoner had walked into the cell wall during a blindmans bluff game among the prisoners they thought police brutality must be the explanation. The debate died down after the commission released a report that said they knew too little to conclude what had happened and the provincial prosecutors announced the prisoner had not died during a game but had been beaten by another prisoner.The official proudly explained that he had defused the issue by showing that public opinion on the Internet must be solved by means of the Internet. 41 MONITORING LOCAL OFFICIALS Every government needs information about how its officials are performing their jobs in order to effectively implement its policies. The top officials of Chinas thirty-three provinces are appointed by the CCP central leaders in Beijing. Yet the central leaders are continually frustrated by their inability to get regional officials to follow their orders.In a rapidly growing market economy, the old top-down bureaucratic methods of monitoring local officials are no longer working. Local officials bene? t more by colluding with local businesses to promote economic growth by spending on big development projects than by providing such social goods as environmental protection, health care, education, and quality food and medicine that are mandated but not fully funded by the central government. Corruption at the local level is rampant.Yet the poor provision of social goods by corrupt local officials could heighten public resentment against the government and threaten CCP rule on the national level. Theoretically, there are several ways that Beijing could resolve the dilemma of how to oversee the performance of local officials. It could allow citizens to elect their own local leaders. It also could permit independent NGOs to monitor the performance of local leaders. A full y autonomous court system in which prosecutors put corrupt officials on trial and citizens sue for the bene? s being denied them also would help. But CCP leaders have been too afraid of losing control to undertake such fundamental institutional reforms. They have chosen instead to rely on the mass media to serve as a ? re alarm to alert Changing Media, Changing China 19 the center to problems at lower levels. 42 From their perspective, using the media looks like a less dangerous approach because they still license media outlets and appoint most of their top editors, thereby retaining some power to rein in errant outlets. Media revelations of local malfeasance also bene? t the center by de? cting blame for problems away from themselves and onto local officials. The publicity appears to be working surveys indicate that Chinese people are more critical of the performance of local officials than of central ones, in contrast to the pattern in American politics. The centers interest in us ing the media to monitor local officials has been evident since the mid-1990s. CCTV, with the encouragement of the powerful propaganda czar Ding Guangen (see chapter 2), created a daily program called Focus (Jiaodian Fantan) to investigate issues at lower levels in 1994.Miao Di, in chapter 4, discusses Focus in some detail. The program was blessed with high-level political support, having been visited by three Chinese premiers and praised by Chinas cabinet, the State Council. The show attracted a wide viewership and strengthened the credibility of television news overall. However, because local officials intervened so frequently to block exposes of their misdeeds, the show now has become much less hard-hitting.The central authorities tolerate greater press openness on the type of problems that, if left unreported and unsolved, might stir up serious popular dissatisfactionin particular, problems with water and air pollution as well as food and medicine quality. Some national-level en vironmental officials have become adept at using media events such as, televised hearings on the environmental impact of important projects to mobilize public pressure on lower-level officials to comply with centrally adopted policies that are environmentally conscious.Veteran journalist Zhan Jiang describes the pattern in chapter 5, on environmental reporting as a general rule the center has an interest in receiving information that reduces the information gap between the center and localities regarding potentially volatile problems resulting from negligence by local officials. However, as he illustrates with the case of the Songhua River chemical spill once journalists pull the ? re alarm and alert Beijing and the public to a crisis, then the center tries to reassert control over the media to cool off ublic emotions and convey an work out of a competent government that is solving the problem. Recently, the central official media have been given the green light to pull the alarm on abuses by local officials. For years, reports have been circulating in the foreign human rights community and the international press about provincial and municipal governments that detain local citizens who have 20 Changing Media, Changing China come to Beijing to petition central officials about their grievances with local officials.They lock up the petitioners in illegal detention centers (black jails) on the outskirts of Beijing, ostensibly for legal education, and then ship them back home. In November 2009, the official magazine Outlook (Liaowang) broke the story of these illegal jails and the report appeared on the Xinhua Web site. 43 Not surprisingly, local officials are wary of media watchdogs and do what they can to fence them out. As Tsinghua University journalism professor Li Xiguang has noted, The central government, in the ? ght against the widespread corruption of the local government, encourages journalists to write exposes of the corruption.But the local governmen ts are very much protective of themselves and of their power, so there is a con? ict between the central government and the local government in dealing with journalists. 44 Censorship by provincial and local branches of the CCP Propaganda Department and the State Council Information Office is viewed by journalists as tighter than that at the national level. The essays in this book offer numerous examples of local governments blackouts of critical news stories and the strategies journalists and activists use to evade them.Ever since the 1990s, regional commercial newspapers have been doing investigative reporting of corruption and other abuses on the part of local officials, but only outside their own home provinces. This practice is called cross-regional reporting (yidi jiandu). Since all local newspapers are part of media groups belonging to the local government and CCP establishment, editors naturally are inhibited from biting the hand that feeds them. Exciting stories about the s ins of other peoples officials may be second best but are better than nothing.Reporters are willing to brave police harassment or violent attacks by paid thugs to get the goods on bad governance by officials in other places. Often they dont have to go to the position to report the story. As Ben Liebman describes in chapter 7, journalists blocked by local bans from writing about local malfeasance can simply e-mail the information to colleagues from other regions who then write the expose. Complaints from provincial and municipal officials about nosy reporters pushed the CCP Propaganda Department to ban the practice of crossregional reporting in 2004.Because the order was largely ignored, a year later provincial leaders raised the issue again, this time at the level of the Politburo. 45 Provincial leaders are a powerful group within the CCP, constituting the largest bloc in the Central Committee and one-quarter of the Politburo. Changing Media, Changing China 21 The interests of thes e leaders incline them to favor tighter restrictions on investigative journalism. As a result of their complaints, cross-regional reporting has been restricted to stories about officials at the county level or below.Only national-level media dare to publish exposes of provincial and municipal officials, and even then they usually stop until they get wind of an official investigation before reporting on the case. Meanwhile, local officials are learning the art of spin they hold press conferences and online chats with Netizens to present an appearance of openness and candorfor example, Chongqing Party Secretary Bo Xilai invited television cameras to broadcast live his negotiations with striking taxi drivers in 2009.The expansion of Internet access and the growth of the Web also make it increasingly difficult for local officials to enforce media blackouts on sensitive issues. Several chapters in this book discuss the 2007 case of the Xiamen PX chemical plant, a project ultimately defe ated by the mobilization of environmentally conscious public opinion that breached a local media blockade. As Xiao Qiang tells the story (chapter 9), the outcome resulted from the gap in control between local authorities as well as between local and central authorities that can provide a space for Netizens to transmit information. . . One of the most vocal advocates for the issue was the blogger Lian Yue, whose Weblog was not hosted within Fujian Province. Because officials outside Fujian, including the central government, did not share the local governments interest in censoring news about the PX plant, Lian Yue was able to continue his Weblog and even get coverage in newspapers published outside Fujian. MEDIA CREDIBILITY AND GOVERNMENT TRANSPARENCY Competition from the commercial media and the Web-based media has created what Qian Gang and David Bandurski call a credibility gap problem for the official media.In chapter 2, they compare the ways stories are covered in various kinds of newspapers, vividly illustrating that commercial newspapers reporting is far more informative and reliable than that found in official newspapers. Readers are abandoning the official media, and their preference is heightened during crises that arouse their interest and motivate them to search for reliable information. 22 Changing Media, Changing China Daniela Stockmann, in chapter 8, provides new data about how people in China choose between different types of news sources.They use the official press to get information on the governments current policy position, but turn to the commercial media and the Internet for credible real news. As she explains, it is the perceived disassociation from the government that lends credibility to the nonofficial media. Stockmann happened to be doing a survey on media usage in Beijing in spring 2005 when student protests against Japan erupted. This serendipity gave her the rare opportunity to compare the way people use the media during normal times and during a crisis.What she discovered was that during a crisis, people have a particularly keen nose for where to ? nd credible information. Even when the propaganda authorities ban reporting of protests and try to homogenize coverage in all types of media, people are more likely to abandon official sources and turn to the commercial press and the Internet than during normal times. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China in 2003 is referred to by several authors as a bout point in the relations between the government, the media, and the public.By ordering the media to play down early reports of people falling ill with a mysterious disease, a cover-up that allowed the virus to spread and kill more people, Beijing deepened public skepticism about the reliability of the official media and of the government itself. More important, the cover-up taught the public to look to new sources for the true facts. The searing SARS experience also spurred the determi nation of journalists to meet peoples need for accurate information during a crisis. The ? ght from official sources creates a serious problem for Chinese leaders, who need to prevent panic and antigovernment reactions during crises. Leaders plausibly worry that a widespread environmental or food safety catastrophe that angers large numbers of people about the same issue at the same time could snowball into a revolt against the CCP. Competition from the commercial media and the Web and the narrowing of the information gap between officials and the public forces the government to be more transparent to maintain its credibility.The State Council Information Office and Tsinghua University have trained hundreds of official spokespeople for central, provincial, and municipal government agencies to give press brie? ngs. The central government launched an E-government initiative, and almost every government agency (including very sensitive ones like the Ministry of State Security) now post s information on its Web site. Changing Media, Changing China 23 The trend toward government transparency got a major salary increase from the Regulations on Open Government Information that went into effect in 2008.The regulations require officials to release information during disasters and emergencies and permit citizens to request the release of government information. An activist took return of the opening to request budgets from government agencies. When in October 2009 Guangzhou released departmental budgets and Shanghai refused to do so on the grounds that this information constituted state secrets, the media and online public went round the bend criticizing Shanghais excuse. 6 Xinhua piled on by reprinting many of the critiques, in

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Arecanut and Cocoa Production and Marketing Aspects Essay

Arecanut is an important commercial crop in India which touchs a prominent role in the religious, social and cultural functions and economic life of people in India. The present production of argoncanut in the world is about 0.854 zillion slews from an area of 0.702 one thousand million hectares. India ranks first in both area and production of arecanut Arecanut industry forms the economic backbone of nearly six million people in India and for many of them it is the fix means of livelihood. Both area and production of arecanut in India have increased tremendously during the last three decades. The area under arecanut in India has increased from 0.167 million hectares during 1971 to 0.4 million hectares by the year 2010-11 with an overall growth say of 2.2%. During the same period the production has increased more than 3 times from 0.141 million tons to 0.478 million tones with a growth rate of 3.2%.As of now, cocoa is one of the important commercial plantation crops in India an d it is of importly cultivated in quaternary major southern States viz., Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. India produces 12954 tonnes of cocoa from an area of 46318 ha (DCCD, 2010). The cocoa industry in the country had expanded to a considerable extent in recent years. At present, more than 15 industrial entrepreneurs and firms existing in the guinea pig demand nearly 30,000 tonnes of cocoa beans, of which the present domestic availability is solitary(prenominal) about 40 percent. Considering the market growth in the chocolate segment in India, which is about 20 percent per annum, cocoa, has a great potential to gear up in future years. Recent area expansion in Andhra Pradesh (16969 ha) can be taken as a positive response to the demand- hang on fissure. We can further, assure the Transfer of Technology (ToT) activities to encourage the cocoa cultivation as an intercrop in arecanut and coconut to meet the challenges regarding try of cocoa in the future.Econom ic contact abbreviation of arecanut based cropping system An impact analysis of arecanut based cropping systems in South Karnataka has been carried out. It was observed that, farmers are predominantly following three cropping systems which were, 1) arecanut + banana tree 2) arecanut + cocoa and 3) arecanut + banana + pepper. To estimate the economic impact of different cropping systems, we have calculated the average cost per hectare, average yield and the net returns of for each one system. The quantification of economic impact of each system has been worked out by combining the difference in net returns of each system from the arecanut monocrop, and percentage of bankers acceptance of each cropping system. The total economic impact due to adoption of cropping systems in the region was open to be Rs 680 million.Economic impact analysis of improved arecanut varieties The analysis was based on a field survey of 120 arecanut farmers in South Karnataka. To estimate the economic im pact of improved varieties we have calculated the weighed average cost per hectare, weighed yield and net returns of the released varieties. The weights are assigned according to the estimated percentage area of each variety in South Karnataka.The total area of arecanut in the district was multiplied with the percentage adoption of improved varieties in the region to arrive at the total area under improved varieties. The difference in net returns will give the supererogatory benefit we would have obtained, had the area been under released varieties. It was observed that 13.6% of total area in southern Karnataka is under released arecanut varieties. The economic impact of released arecanut varieties in monitory wrong was found to be rupees 141 million per year. The presence of improved varieties was more prominent in the young plantations. The holding wise observations revealed that the presence of released varieties was more in undersized holding groups.Cost of production of arec anut and cocoa According to the study conducted by the Institute, the cost of production of one kilogram of arecanut in a well-maintained tend was found to be Rs 104.20 Here we have considered the economic life span of the palm as 35 years and average annual production as 2700 kg/ha The average maintenance cost (from 8th year to 35th year) was calculated at Rs. 168765/ha. The cost of production of cocoa gr knowledge in arecanut garden was found to be Rs74.42/kg of dry beans and average annual maintenance cost recorded at Rs 55268/ha.Marketing The chali and the red are the two main varieties of arecanut consumed by the people mostly as a habit. Chali or the white supari is utilize mainly in the pan or beedas and the red variety is used both in the preparation of pan and value added products like pan masala, ghutka, sweet supari etc. From production to consumption level both private disdainrs and the co-operatives play an important role in India. Here, the share of the cooperative is around 15 per cent and remaining is under the control of the private traders. Among the cooperatives The CAMPCO, a nodal agency has its own purchasing and sales centres throughout the countryDisposal pattern A study in Dakshina Karnataka showed that 80 percent of the farmers, who dispose the produce immediately by and by harvest, were small cultivators. Remaining 20 per cent who disposed the produce when the prices in the market are favorable, were large farmers. It was observed that indebtedness and lack of proper base of operations facilities for storage compel the small farmer to dispose the produce at the earliest. The majority of the farmers (63%) sold chali supari to traders, who reportedly paid two rupees extra of the market rate per kg of chali sold.Stagnating market prices and increasing cost of production, especially the skilled labour charges in the recent times have generated livelihood concerns of arecanut farmers in India. Surging imports, which is around 12 perc ent of the domestic production, certainly has a significant role in price stickiness. Market studies reveal that around 75 percent of the arecanut trade is in the hands of private trades, which has provided ample scope for hoarding and resulted in market imperfections and low price realization.In the case of cocoa the current supply is only around fifty percent of the actual domestic demand and hence, there exist a huge scope for area expansion with the supply of elite seedlings/grafts. Effective dissemination of technologies through trainings, on-farm trials, demonstrations and seminars are being carried out by the Institute. Nevertheless, the price stagnation of the crop for a long period has caused disinterest among arecanut farmers. Therefore, in the case of arecanut a vicious cycle was formed in the pattern of depressed prices + shortage of labourcrop negligencediseases /pest accesslow yield/production and this in turn especially has adversely affected the small and marginal a recanut farmers who are solely dependent on the crop.