Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Providing equal opportunity for employment Essay

RECRUITMENT GUIDE Chern’s will provide equal opportunity for employment to all persons regardless of any discrimination based race, color, sex, religion, origin, age or disability and will strive to achieve full and equal employment opportunity throughout its organization. Steps 1)Identify Job openings through human resource planning/ strategic plan. Any Employee resignations/terminations could be helpful in identifying any internal job openings. 2) Develop position requirement by specifying job description/ job specifications. Identify job duties and responsibilities in it keeping in mind essential functions of the job which are critical for the position (minimum requirement or any preferred qualification). 3) Develop the recruiting plan for posting period and placement goals and implement it. 4) Post the position and build the diverse pool of application. Develop and use application forms- One type of application form that can be used to predict performance is a biographical information blank (BIB) also known as biodata form which is a detailed job application form requesting biographical data found to be predictive of success on the job, about the background, experiences, and preferences. Respond is the score. They are good as they are difficult to fake. 5) Review application material and develop the short list. Recruiting from within the organization ( As Chern’s believes in internal recruiting so they could use different internal recruiting methods like – Job posting( Notifying current employees about Vacant positions. Alternatively, Skills inventories ensure that internal candidates are identified and considered for transfer or promotion when opportunities arise). Some of the outside recruiting sources could be employee referrals as employees get bonuses if they refer someone. Alternatively, contacting former employees someone who already has worked with a company and had better knowledge of its culture and expectations. Educational institutions and online recruiting are best when the budget is low. One of the priority could be to hire a more diverse group. 6) Interview selected applicant- ask the only job-related questions, document selection process. The interview process is crucial. The approaches described below are simple, good practice and are relevant to the majority and minority candidates. * Develop questions based on the required and preferred skills and qualifications listed in the Job Description (JD). Candidates will respond differently based on work history, experience and skill level. * Be sure to ask the same set of core questions, listen carefully and allow candidates to respond adequately. Be prepared for candidates questions. The primary objective of the interview is to determine if the candidate can perform specific duties. * Take good notes during the meeting and immediately after, documenting the responses and job-related criteria. * Review duties and responsibilities of the job using the JD, individual qualifications, work history, relevant experience/training/educational background, career goals, travel requirements, equipment used and facilities, hours required, attendance requirements, performance expectations, any on-the-job training and staff development opportunities. * Identify potential management candidates clearly on interview notes. 7) Select finalist and verify job-related credentials- conducting reference checks 8) Make contingent job offer- request background check and education verification. 9) Close the notice of vacancy. 10) Schedule and conduct new employee processing. B) INCREASE FAIRNESS PERCEPTION When recruitment process is fair, and recruiters treat all applicants honestly and respectfully, it improves the chances of applicants accepting an offer for the job. The recruitment process should be relevant to the job and be consistent across all applicants. Make sure hiring is done to fill a real vacancy. It should be easy for candidates to apply.Also, explain the recruitment process to the applicant and give them the opportunity to show why they should be hired. Clear job description could help avoid discrimination of any sort. All applicants should be treated fairly throughout the selection and hiring process. High levels of fairness maintained throughout the recruitment process give Chern the best chance of recruiting top talent. Keep applicants informed of their progress or lack of progress through the process. Interviews should be conducted using standardized, approved methods with all questions to be predetermined by management. According to Stan M. Gully and Jean M. Phillips, authors of Strategic Staffing, there are three types of perceptions of fairness that applicants can feel related to a company’s recruitment and selection process. These are distributive, procedural and interactional fairness. Distributive is similar to how fair an applicant feels the hiring or promotion system is. Procedural refers to candidates beliefs that a company’s policies and procedures that guide the hiring or promotion decision were fair. It Includes the screening tools, tests, interview process as it relates to personality or integrity tests. Interactional fairness has to do with an applicant’s perception of treatment during the hiring process. If an applicant is no longer considered to be hired, they s hould be informed about is as soon as possible. Candidates feel important and create a positive image for those companies who follow them up on their applications and interview. When these things do not occur, the employer may find that there have been negative spillover effects as a consequence. When someone has a positive experience, he or she tells others and view the organization in a positive light. The same is true with a negative experience. The issue is that when someone does have a negative experience, he or she is much more likely to tell others about the experience and to discontinue association with the company. A good recruiter should be open to giving as well as receiving feedback. When using internal or external recruiters, Chern should ensure that the recruiter possesses characteristics that support candidates having a positive experience. These include being familiar with the position as well as the company. A recruiter who cannot answer questions about the job they are recruiting for or the company appears incompetent to the applicant, and this image is then attached to the company as well. Active listening skills, enthusiasm, intelligence, and trustworthiness all reflect well on the company. C and D) EMPLOYER BRAND Chern’s should define its mission and values that would flow through its employer branding communications. An ideal branding mission would be to inspire and influence others to connect with organizations core values. Like, Creating an environment where everyone feels welcome. Numerous methods could help in branding. Use of technology Digital marketing could attract new applicants as well engage and to retain the old one. Use of social media like facebook, twitter, and other sites helps the company to attract talent and reach masses. Employees who perform well and are there in the company from long can share their experiences through these sites or create their blog to let new candidates know what their experiences and success and failure stories have been so far. It would help talent connect and understand company’s culture. Photographs of any main events or about company’s environment could also be posted to drive traffic and interaction. It provides clear view of the organization. Communicating the brand image to employees from recruitment, into orientation and throughout their time with Chern’s will lead to the stronger brand image in the industry. It creates a positive image in their mind and makes them feel valued. What does company stand for should be listed on career page, known by all staff? Promote the family-oriented image the company holds with current employees and provide benefits that fit their needs will support the brand image. Having this firmly rooted family oriented foundation is the structure that supports employee empowerment and provides evidence of how the company values their people. When employees can understand the direction of their employer, see evidence that the employer cares about their well-being, they provide the best word of mouth advertising.

Closed and Open Macro-Economy Systems

Closed And Open macro-economy Systems Todd Gray ECON224-1204A-04 Macroeconomics American Intercontinental University- Online In today’s business world it is important to understand the difference between an open and closed Macroeconomic system. Each time you go out to purchase a good or service you need to be aware of how your hard earned money is being distributed across the economic system. There are two types of systems that I will discuss an open system and a closed system. Closed System:In a closed system the money is caught up in a circular flow and is considered to be a closed system. When looking at the closed system you will notice right off that only the domestic exchanges are counted and the foreign agents are not counted within the closed system. In a closed system there should not be any leaks due to the fact that there are no foreign agents, government, or a system of savings or investments. Furthermore in a closed system there are no taxes, savings, or import ex penditures that are not returned to the economy.When look at examples of a closed economy you don’t have to look very far to find a good example is the Amish they produce all of what they need and only do business within their community there is no form of savings or taxes within the economic system. The goods and services are made of home grown materials and there is no imported materials used within the closed system. This is a very small system but a good example of the closed system at work. The inner flow in a closed system functions in the following way.Goods and services are delivered from the factories to the consumer and the land labor and capital is provided by the consumers to the factories. The outer flow in a closed system functions in the following way. Consumers provide the money to the factories and the factories provide the wages and rentals to the consumer. Open system: In an open economic system the good and services are counted that are exchanged both dome stically and between nations. One major difference is the introduction of leaks which can inject money into the open system.The money comes from the government, households and firms from the foreign countries that are traded with. Another type of Leak is the goods and services that the government purchases like building materials and office goods for example. The final type of leak is the money that households save it can be in the form of checking accounts or saved within the stock market and reinvested to increase the value of the money. In an open system there are a few ways that an injection of cash can happen and they are as follows.When foreign firms send wages to the United States firms and send rent payments for foreign workers staying in the United States this creates an injection within the system. The next type of injection occurs when foreign households purchase goods and services from the United States that have been produced by the American companies. In an open system the outer flow is as follows: The factories pay the employees the wages that they use to pay the rentals then the people that buy the products produced by the factories the factories then use those funds to stay in production.The inner flow of the open system works as follows: The people buy the goods and services and the factories use the money to purchase land to build more factories in order to provide for the people who are purchasing the products produced. In this same inner circle the government collects taxes from the people and the factories which is then injected back into the economy. Public services are provided to the people and the factories in exchange for the cash.A personal example of a leakage would be for myself to take the wages paid to me by my place of employment and places those wages into a savings account and not use them to purchase goods and services. A personal example of an injection would be providing a rental apartment to a foreign worker who is receiv ing the rent money from the foreign country. When I use this money to buy goods and services provided in the United States it injects that money back into the economy.References http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-a-closed-economy. htm

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Human and New Surgical Tools

Countless inventions have improved the quality of human life and made previously inconceivable notions possible. In some cases (such as the washing machine), they reduce the drudgery of day-to-day tasks. In others (such as the motion picture), they allow people to engage in new forms of artistic expression. Many inventions actually save human lives, such as new surgical tools and medical vaccines.With the science scientist invented the computer now everywhere we need and we are using computers, computers become a friendly in our nature that we can do anything from echnologies so I want to conclude that science is a boon not a bane if we use in a proper way. Science has invented marvellous machines and discovered energies that run these machines to take the drudgery out of man's work. By doing much of his work and doing it fast, machines have provided man with a lot of leisure. The rosy dream of an easy and luxurious life has come true for him. Distance has been conquered.Modern means of transport and communication have made the Modern means of transport and communication has made the world a global village. Men nd things and news and views can go around the globe today with lightening speed. Internet has brought people of the world together and brought about a revolution in the fields of information and communication. Man has already landed on the moon and man- made satellites have made voyages through the solar system. Our life has become healthier and longer. Modern hygiene, sanitation, medicine and surgery are conquering more and more physical and mental illness with each passing day.We now know and experience the Joys of good health and longevity. Through the inema, the radio, the tape recorder, the TV and the video, science has worked wonders in the fields of education and entertainment. Though we welcome these blessings of science, we have to consider the other side of the picture also. Man has not been able to face the problems created by the inventions of science and to stop the misuse or harmful consequences of scientific inventions. Factories have polluted the water and the atmosphere. They have caused noise pollution.Industrialization has led to slums in which human beings live a degraded life in the midst of filth and qualor. We have allowed science to master us instead of keeping it our servant. Medical inventions have, led to the pollution explosion and the consequent miseries. Again, science has put in our hands terrible weapons such as the nuclear bombs, the guided missiles and the means of chemicals and biological warfare. We are in danger of destroying ourselves with these monstrous means that ironically are our own creations. Rightly used science can bring heaven on earth. Wrongly used, it can turn this earth into hell.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Human Resources Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Human Resources - Essay Example The local market has reached saturation and 80% of the firm’s sales are in North America. The firm needs new markets for sales and production options to be able to produce in a globally competitive market. This may be achieved by impeccable execution by the HR department. This would mean changing the whole organizational culture of the firm and drawing out more efficient ways of operations especially where employees are concerned. The problem was that the firm was losing shareholder value, which it needed to regain at any cost or risk the firm’s downfall as a permanent feature. The firm was growing with takeovers and eating competition shares which was not enough for real growth, as it needed to increase its top-line sales (Hofstede, 2005). Analysis With the changing global economic environment, Sonoco began suffering as its sales went down. The firm was incurring many additional expenses which could have been easily avoided had the HR structure been in line with the lo ng-term strategies of the firm. The firm was in need for surging new markets but it could not do so with the current HR design nor could it afford to spend unnecessarily especially on employees. Assessing the internal environment it seemed that the employees had settled in and were content with the fact that they had secure jobs. The majority had been working for a long time with the firm which made them at ease with one another and there was hardly any competition with one another which worked negatively for the firm (Decenzo, 2001). This is because the employees did not mind that some of them were under-producing and were ok with the fact that they were not being compensated for their extra work if any. The firm was not giving the right appreciation to the right employee, which indicates that the growth was not on merit. Perhaps there was a lack of leadership where the grievances of employees were not addressed and they stayed because the firm was lenient. The employees did not ha ve stringent objectives to work towards and apparently the overall work of each employee was not too demanding. However, the work environment was healthy as there is teamwork and employees are willing to protect each other. But there is a stark absence of a leader and key knowledge workers who could help in implementing the long-term goals and objectives of global growth. The HR department lacked structure and strategic alignment. Hartley focused on talent management and to place the right person at the right place, to assess individual worker’s input so that the compensation plan, promotion and talent may be assessed and utilised accordingly. She also focused on aligning the HR with that of GM’s businesses. She also focused on the fact that the firm needed to develop employees in terms of training and on the job learning. Lastly she understood that there was a need for leadership and to identify those with leadership qualities for the future. However, in her approach the most apparent mistake was that there was a top down approach. The industry trends were changing where the packaging demanded became extremely segmented and catering to these different niches was challenging. It was essential to understand the consumers. Likewise, according to Deresky (2007) it was essential to understand the wants and needs of the employees as suggested by Maslow in his needs theory. Once these needs were

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Georgia Dome Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Georgia Dome - Research Paper Example Moreover, in the year 2000, the Super Bowl XXXIV was held at the Dome and each year, the Chick Fil-A Bowl, the Bank of America Atlanta Football Classic and the SEC Football Championships and similar events are hosted. Furthermore, it is the site where NCAA Men’s Basketball Final Four was held in the years 2002 and 2007. In addition, through out the year several sports events such as tennis matches, basket ball games, track and field events and Supercross events are held at the Georgia Dome. The Dome is considered as the home of the famous Atlanta Falcons. The Dome is specially designed to be capable of hosting non sports events as well, such as annual trade shows and religious events. For tourists and sports lovers, ranges of behind the scene tours are available at nominal prices. Such tours are available on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. The stadium is oval shaped and this ensures a good view from each of its71, 500 seats. Parking is quite expensive and limited so it is a g ood idea to prefer walking to the Dome instead. The Dome is easily accessible through rail and road. (Gramercy Books, 2006). The responsibility of operating the Georgia Dome, the 21 acre Centennial Olympic Park and Georgia World Congress Centre is undertaken by the Georgia World Congress Centre Authority. Georgia Dome is one of the World’s largest State owned, sports, entertainment and convention center facilities. Atlanta’s Hypar-Tensgrity Georgia Dome is a domed stadium that is supported by cables and was opened to the world in the year 1992. The construction of the combined sports facility was funded by the Georgia General Assembly, and is considered as Atlanta’s largest state funded construction project. During the construction of the Dome, 8,300 tons of reinforced steel was used and approximately 110,000 cubic yards of concrete was used. The Dome occupies a total area of 8.9 acres and has seven levels each of which is of 1.6 million square feet. The height of the Georgia

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Racial Profiling (Research Proposal) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Racial Profiling (Research Proposal) - Essay Example changed the socio- cultural values of a country, forcing them to formulate new strategies and policies to meet the challenges of the emerging pluralistic societies. The changing values necessitate development of a new social order which would not only embrace multi cultural values but help forge a universal bond that would transcend race and religious boundaries. Therefore racial profiling is not only a morally degenerative practice but it is the most despicable practice that violates human rights and promotes a deliberate sense of inequality and fear among the minority ethnic group who are designated by their color of skin. Broadly speaking racial profiling can be defined as those actions of police and government officials that are based on racial prejudices. In the new emerging equations of society, racial profiling has become extremely contentious and the discriminate behaviour of police and people in authority in government departments, have posed very serious questions of the relevance of the fundamental rights of the citizens possessing different skin color. More than thirty two million Americans have been subjected to racial profiling and approximately eighty seven millions Americans are at high risk of being subjected to it in future (RP, 2004). The human rights violation and harassment, in the name of justice has provoked a wide spread feeling of outrage and national shame. There is urgent need to address racial profiling. The purpose of the study is to conduct a comprehensive study of people who have undergone atrocities under racial profiling and those live under the constant fear of becoming its victim in future. The study would be an effort to bring out the broader repercussions of racial profiling and would like to focus on the expectations of the people coming from different races. The study would also be used to reflect the opinion of white people and try to decipher the root cause that promotes such practices against colored people. The study

Friday, July 26, 2019

World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Essay

World Bank and the International Monetary Fund - Essay Example Through lending money, the bank supports the ambition of developing nations to join the European Union. This is done through Country Assistance Strategy. Work Bank provides both technical and financial assistance to the developing countries based on the assessment of the priorities of the country, creditworthiness and past portfolio performance (Sadler, 2009). In addition, the World Bank maintains macroeconomic stability, fosters human development, promotes sustainable growth of private sector and improves business environment, and also improves governance and strengthens institutions via building inclusive and efficient public institutions. The role of International Monetary Fund in providing loans to countries is somehow similar to those of World Bank. The International Monetary Fund has a mandate to oversee international financial and monetary system as well as monitor the financial and economic policies of the member countries. This is done through surveillance which enhances international cooperation. The International Monetary Fund also puts up lending conditions that ensure borrowing countries will repay the loan and that the nation will not solve its balance of payment in a manner to negatively affect the international economy (Sadler, 2009). Summarily, International Monetary Fund fosters economic stability and global growth, and poverty reduction through

The Magna Carta and it's influence on shaping the United States Essay

The Magna Carta and it's influence on shaping the United States Government - Essay Example The English Charter, originally issued in 1215 by the King John had made the supremacy of law over capricious decision of the imperial powers. It had stressed the freedom of the people. Even though the law was projected for the favor of a few barons in England, it was a stepping stone for the development of democracy, later, in many parts of the world. The English settlers in America had taken the basic aspects of the Charter in shaping the Constitution of United States. It was Magna Carta that acted as an inspirational force for the independence of American colonies from the clutches of the British government and further for the shaping of a democratic prophet. The Magna Carta and American Democracy Magna Carta played a great role in shaping the democracy in United States. It is the written law that had diminished the powers of king. When the English colonies came into existence in the United States, it played a crucial role for the democracy on the land. As quoting by Thomas Garden Barnes and Allen D. Boyer, â€Å"For those who were starting a new, it offered even more: they were beginning to build policies from the ground up and they were concerned to preserve the laws and liberties of Englishmen† (Barnes & Boyer, 2008, p.30). The American democracy rests much upon the attributes of the Magna Carta. It acted as a strong force for their battle against the British imperialism. The writers still move on to say that the Magna Carta had been more accepted in America than in England. It paved for the growth of the democracy in America. The Magna Carta’s contribution to the creation of United States The Magna Carta was an inspiring cause for the creation of the United States of America. When the colonies were struggling too much under the British rule, they tried their best to over throw off the arbitrary rule of the imperial government. The attempts of the barons in making King John signing the charter acted as a great strength for the colonists to f ight against the British. This has made some unity among the colonies in America. Both Magna Carta and Bill of Rights demanded for the various liberties. America’s strength lies in its Bill of Rights. The book, Magna Carta by James Clarke Holt describes the comparison between the Bill of Rights and Magna Carta. The Bill of Rights of Virginia of 1776 stresses on the inherent rights of men. It says that men have the rights of enjoyment of life and liberty, with the rights of acquiring of property, pursuing happiness and liberty. In the same manner Magna Carta cha.8 says, â€Å"†¦to lie down that no man was to be deprived of his liberty, ‘except by the law of the land or the judgment of his peers’ (Holt, 1992, p.18). So it can be undoubtedly say that Magna Carta was acting a powerful source for the creation of the United States. The War of Independence was a clear replica of the situations that led to the signing of Magna Carta on June 15, 1215. Magna Cartaâ⠂¬â„¢s Contribution to the new American Government The new American government is resting on the principles of democracy and freedom of its subjects. The Magna Carta was the beginning of its constitutional changes on the land. Many law reforms take its attributes to the first ‘Bills of Rights’ of the land. The ‘Bill of Rights ‘in America mainly stresses on the principles of the Magna Carta. The Americans were all suffocating under heavy taxes of the British government. They were not at all ready to give due representation for the colonists in America. These situations in America gave birth for the unification of the 13 colonies and all turned against the British. The imperial rule came to an end in 1775 with the declaration of independence. The Magna Carta w

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Frankenstein by Mary Shelley and the doctor assuming the role of God Essay

Frankenstein by Mary Shelley and the doctor assuming the role of God - Essay Example â€Å"A new species would bless me as their creator and source: many happy and excellent natures would owe their being to me. No father could claim the gratitude of his child so completely as I should deserve theirs.† (Shelley, 58) Therefore, it is evident that there is an insatiable urge in Victor Frankenstein to assume the role of God and he is often criticized for crossing ethical and moral boundaries with the aim of achieving this goal. An understanding of his experiences with the monster in the novel confirms that his choice is executed with ill-intentions and questionable for ethical motives. This paper makes a reflective exploration of the idea that Victor was wrong in assuming the role of God. Assuming the role of God for the purpose of creating life is wrong, and such an endeavor led to the detriment of Dr. Frankenstein in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. A profound analysis of the theme of assuming the role of God in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein confirms tha t the major character, Dr. Frankenstein, has been highly obsessed the lure of creating life from his early childhood onwards. At his young age, Victor was fascinated by the wonders life offered him and he wanted to learn about all of them and he dedicated his time to exploring the realms of these wonders through the study of alchemy, chemistry, philosophy and human anatomy. As a youngster, Victor was obsessed with the power of knowledge and wished to find out the secrets of nature and its powers. â€Å"The most learned philosopher knew little more. He had partially unveiled the face of Nature, but her immortal lineaments were still a wonder and a mystery†¦ I had gazed upon the fortifications and impediments that seemed to keep human beings from entering the citadel of nature, and rashly and ignorantly I had repined.† (47) Significantly, his obsession for knowledge led Victor to make a life-altering decision – the decision to create an animate being. After several years of labor – intensive work – stitching together different pieces of flesh into one being – Victor finally completed his task and created life. The outcome, however, was not the wonderful being he had hoped for, but rather a monstrous atrocity. He had created a fearsome and inhuman creature; he created a monster. Thus, Harold Bloom presents â€Å"Victor Frankenstein, in his act of creation, as being momentarily a moral idiot, like so many who have done his work after him†¦ When the ‘dull yellow eye’ of his creature opens, this creator falls from the autonomy of a supreme artificer to the terror of a child of earth†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Bloom, 6) Therefore, it is fundamental to maintain that Victor’s attempt to assume the role of God by creating a monster resulted in his ultimate detriment and tragedy in life. One of the essential factors about the character of Victor in the novel is that he is presented as a counterfeit of God and as a Fau stian figure, rather than a Promethean one. Significantly, the intention of the protagonist in assuming the role of God in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein has not been one of serving the welfare of humanity, but rather to serve his egoistic motive of acquiring power and respect of his creation. In fact, the most fundamental irony of the novel Frankenstein: Or,

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Business Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Business Law - Essay Example In that case, the Court rendered the term unenforceable because it appeared only at the bottom of the web page after the download button, depriving the customer the opportunity to read it first. This is not true however, in the present case because Dell not only advertised the terms in its website but also enclosed a written copy of it with the delivery of the computer to the customer. Generally, the courts will find for arbitration if it clearly appears that an agreement thereto was reached between the parties and even if there are doubts such as in the case of NCR Corp v Korala Associates, Ltd 512 F 3d 807 (2008) but may decide against it, even if there was agreement, if it is obviously one-sided such as in the case of Circuit City Stores Inc v Adams 279 F 3d 889 (2002) (cited Miller & Jentz 2009 52, 53). The present case, however, is distinguished from similar cases where the court held shrink-wrap agreements and arbitration clauses valid by its absence of an express disclaimer informing the customer of the specific method by which to express his or her rejection of the terms, usually a return of the product as was in the case of ProCD, Inc v Zeidenberg 908 F Supp 640 (1996). The implication of this is that DeFontes has no notice that a rejection of the terms should be expressed by returning the product and therefore, as to her, the arbitration term is not bind ing. She therefore, has good chances of dismissing Dell’s application for

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Extension on lead acid accumulators or lithium rechargeable batteries Coursework

Extension on lead acid accumulators or lithium rechargeable batteries - Coursework Example Introduction Rechargeable batteries such as lead acid accumulators and lithium accumulators are applied in number of operations. For example, lead acid accumulators are mainly used to start engines such those of cars and motorcycles among others. They are also used to store solar energy in situations where solar panels are used as sources of energy. Regardless of the fact that they are widely used in the above mentioned operations, none of these lead acid accumulators has been incorporated with instruments (pre-installed meters) such as ammeters and voltmeters that show amount of power (amount of available current or voltage respectively) that is available (Benson 2006). This has forced users of these devices use external voltmeters or ammeters to measure amount of voltage or current that is available respectively. Also, during charging operations these accumulators are not able to show whether they are fully charged or not; this may lead to overcharging and consequently reduction in life of the accumulators (Benson 2006). It is, therefore, important that these accumulators be fitted with pre-installed meters (ammeters and voltmeters). ... This will be possible since the proposed product will be fitted with a screen or analogue indicator that is capable of showing amount of charge available in an accumulator and the level of charge while the accumulators are undergoing charging operations. This paper, therefore, has proposed extension on Rechargeable batteries such as lead acid accumulators and lithium accumulators. The extension is such that the newly produced lead acid accumulators and/or lithium accumulators are fitted with instruments capable of measuring levels of both available current and voltage. These instruments maybe ammeters or voltmeters (they may also be either digital or analogue provided the required information is displayed effectively). The proposed extension is expected to enable users know whether their accumulators are charging or not or whether they are full while being charged on or not. Analysis of the market Whenever any new product is to be released into the market for the customers, an extens ive and detailed market research should be carried out. It is normally carried out in order to make informed decisions regarding what the customers want, and how they would view the proposed modification (Cole& Kelly 2011). If a product is released into the market without necessarily carrying out proper market research, problems that would have been avoided may affect the market as well as sale of the product; thereby impacting negatively on the producers of the product (Anderson 2007). Therefore, carrying out market research is imperative when a new product or a modified product is to be released into the market. The data that may be collected during market analysis include: how the customers would perceive the modified product, the current market size of the current

Monday, July 22, 2019

Different Marriage or Wedding Practices in Countries Essay Example for Free

Different Marriage or Wedding Practices in Countries Essay I. Africa: 1. In some African tribes, the bride and groom have their wrists tied together with cloth or braided grass to represent their marriage. 2. To honor their ancestors, some Africans pour Holy water, or alcohol, onto the ground as prayers are recited to the ancestral spirits. 3. The bride wears a veil made of plaited hair which represents reserve. 4. The people present wear traditional regional costumes. 5. The couple jumps above a brush covered with flowers, which symbolizes the starting of domestic life. 6. The Kola nut is most often used for medicinal purposes in Africa. It is also essential in most African weddings. The Kola nut symbolizes the couples willingness to always help heal each other. In Nigeria, the ceremony is not complete until a kola nut is shared between the couple and their parents. II. Arabia: 1. Traditionally, marriage was between paternal first cousins or other patrilineally related kin. 2. It was customary for potential spouses not to meet before the wedding night, and marriages had to be arranged by fathers, mothers, and other relatives. These practices are changing slowly and unevenly, but the tendency is toward fewer close-cousin marriages and for the couple to communicate with each other before the wedding. 3. The bride wears an elaborate veil and gets her hands and feet decorated with a drawing made with alhea (henna). 4. During the reception, men and women stay separated. 5. Men are allowed to have four wives at a time as long as they can treat them equally, but polygyny is uncommon in most of the population. Marriage is considered a necessary part of life, and almost all adults marry III. Caribe and Burmuda: 1. The bride and groom show off their finest clothes for the entire village. 2. There’s no need for a best man at an Island wedding. 3. A typical wedding feast features curried goat and spicy chicken jerky 4. The traditional wedding cake is a â€Å"Black Cake† with the recipe handed down from mother to daughter for many generations. The cake is traditionally served with a Hard Rum Sauce and all of the dried fruits are soaked in rum in a crock pot for anywhere from two weeks to one year. 5. Calypso music is played. 6. In the Bermudas people plant a tree for prosperity. IV. China: 1. Auspicious days are subject to interpretation by fortune tellers that perform the analysis based on one’s birth date (day and hour) after consultation with the Chinese almanac. It is said to be the oldest continuous publication known. 2. In the Chinese community it is considered bad form if an individual consults the almanac and performs a self analysis. That is why a fortune teller or Fung Suey [Feng Shui] expert is consulted. 3. The 15 day period from the middle to the end of the seventh lunar month is considered inauspicious because that is time of the Hungry Ghost Festival when the gates of Hell are opened and the lost spirits are allowed to wander the earth. They should not be invited to the wedding! 4. Decorations and gift wrappings are red as this color (and gold too) symbolizes happiness and wealth. 5. There are always rockets acting as protection against bad spirits. 6. The bride changes her dress three times during the wedding ceremony. V. England: 1. The familiar tradition of a flower girl throwing rose petals as she passes down the aisle before the bride is a reminder of days gone by when the bride walked to the church with her maids in waiting. Leading the procession was always a young girl throwing flower petals along the lane, so the brides path through life would be happy and laden with flowers. 2. The couple walks toward the church with their wedding procession over a path of orange blossoms. 3. Something Old Something New Something Borrowed Something BlueAnd a Silver Sixpence in Her Shoe! This good-luck saying that originated many years ago in the Victorian era. 4. Most of the brides wear a horseshoe on one of their arms decorated with lace as an amulet. 5. The fruit cake is covered with marzipan. The upper section (baptism tart) is kept until the first child is born. VI. France: 1. A traditional French custom for the groom to call on his future bride at her home on the morning of their wedding. 2. In a church filled with incense and flowers, the couple stands beneath a silk canopy. A predecessor of the veil, a square of silk fabric, carre' is held over the head of the bride and groom as the couple received the priests final blessing. They were designed to protect the couple from descending malice. The same veil is used for the baptism of their new born child. 3. The bridal portion is put in the nuptial wardrobe, hand engraved with symbols of health and prosperity. 4. The couple drinks from the traditional wedding cup. 5. All decorations are white, and laurel leaves are spread out of the church when the nuptial couple departs. 6. On the wedding night, pots and pans are drummed to disturb the couple. The groom invites jokers in and some refreshments are offered. VII. Germany: 1. During the engagement period both the bride and groom wear a ring on their left hand. After the wedding they wear the wedding ring on their right hand. Usually the rings are gold with no diamonds. 2. Germany brides wear either very short trains or usually none at all attached to their wedding dress. If veils are worn they are of fingertip length and typically never worn over the face 3. The groom usually wears a black suit or a smoking jacket (dinner jacket) 4. Some weeks before the wedding the groom and his male friends go to a Kneipe (pub) to drink and have fun for his last time as a single man. 5. Before a church wedding the bride and groom will have been married in the Standesamt (Registry Office) by a registrar which is most often in the Rathaus (town hall). A witness is needed for the bride and also for the groom. 6. At a party on the evening before the wedding plates and dishes are smashed to scare off evil spirits. Only china can be used. Anything else would bring bad luck. The bride and groom have to clean up everything. This is to indicate that they can work together. 7. Together, the bride and groom will enter the church and walk down the aisle. Because it is not legal to have only a church ceremony, the couple will have already been legally married by a Standesbeamte. 8. As the couple walks to the wedding car, fir boughs are laid along the path to pave their first newlywed steps with fresh greenery to symbolize hope, luck and fertility. 9. On the day of the wedding, the guests go to couples house. VIII. Greece: 1. Before the wedding, tradition in Greece is to have your â€Å"Bed† made before groom actually sleep in it with the new spouse. During this ceremony, the bed is â€Å"made† with hand-knit linens and then adorned with Koufetta – almond candies, rose petals and, of course, money from friends and family for good luck. 2. When attending a Greek wedding, guests might wear a small â€Å"Eye† to ward off evil and keep the Bride and Groom protected from bad luck. 3. Greek Brides often put a lump of sugar in their glove for a â€Å"sweet† marriage. 4. Nowadays, after the wedding ceremony, guests are offered bombonieres. These delightful gifts of sugar-coated almonds are wrapped in net and attached to a small memento of your wedding. 5. Another hallmark of modern weddings is the wild and deafening loud concerto of automobile horns before and after a wedding ceremony. 6. In the reception a dance with handkerchiefs (Kaslamantiano) is enjoyed by all while stuf fed grape leaves, lamb skewers, and wine are served. 7. During the ceremony the groom is asked to honor the bride and she slightly touches him to put emphasis. IX. Italy: 1. A traditional Italian proposal begins with a romantic serenade. 2. Brides to be and their families gathered a dote or dowry of household goods and clothing in hope or marriage chests. This was often augmented with money or property. 3. In southern Italy, wild bachelor parties are uncommon as are raucous gatherings for the ladies. 4. Italian bride wears a white gown and veil. The white dress symbolizes purity while the veil, sometimes torn for luck, prevents the groom from clearly seeing the face of his intended before the ceremony, and thereby bringing bad luck upon the couple. 5. Almonds covered with caramel symbolize the joys and sadness of marriage. Sometimes the couple is pelted with sugared almonds. 6. In the reception, everyone enjoys the traditional dance called the Tarantella. X. Japan: 1. Sake Ceremony known as one of the oldest traditional Japanese wedding customs, san-san-kudo, or sharing of sake is still performed today. 2. In Japan, brides may wear a colorful silk kimono or a shiromuku, a formal gown passed down over the ages and still used today as traditional bridal dresses. Some Japanese brides choose to wear a modern wedding gown. 3. The bride wears an elaborate white silk dress, various adornments, and a special wig. 4. In the reception theres a dedication and some speeches, and the honored guests tell stories about the couple. 5. Kiogashi (colored sweets with flower shape), indicate that this is also a party. 6. Red is the funny and lucky color. XI. Korea: 1. In Korea, the marriage between a man and woman represents the joining of two families, rather than the joining of two individuals. 2. Before a Korean bride may be married, she must take part in the traditional Introduction ceremony, where she is accepted into the grooms family. In a private ceremony, the grooms family welcomes the bride. 3. The grooms father may throw red dates at his daughter-in-law to bring her luck in fertility. 4. On the eve of the wedding (hum), the groom, bride, and her friends gather at the bride’s house. The groom’s friends arrive later, shouting and carrying lanterns to light the way and the bride’s things/dowry. Before entering they demand to be paid. When the payment of food and song is agreed upon, they enter and join with the others to celebrate. 5. Traditionally, a chest of gifts for the bride’s family was brought by the groom’s family. 6. The bride wears a multicolored silk dress with white sleeves and a black silk crown and she is made up with red points on her cheeks to scare away bad spirits. XII. Scotland: 1. Usually about a week before the ceremony the mother of the bride will hold a â€Å"show of presents† for her daughter. This corresponds to the bridal shower in other cultures. A slightly more raunchy tradition is the groom’s stag party. 2. The modern Scottish bride will wear a traditional or contemporary white wedding gown, while the groom dresses in traditional Highland kilt, kilt jacket and sporran. 3. The couple is either bag piped down the isle or traditional Gaelic hymns are played as they walk to the altar. The Highland Wedding is played at virtually all Scottish weddings. 4. Once at the altar the couple may choose to recite their vows in ancient Gaelic or to recite them in modern English. Following the vows the groom often pins a strip of his clan’s tartan colors to the bride’s wedding dress to signify that she is now a member of his clan. 5. Following the ceremony the bride and groom and all their honored guests head to a private home or to a restaurant for a lavish reception feast. At the typical Scottish reception you can count on the bride and groom being â€Å"piped† to the table of honor, where the bride will cut the first slice of wedding cake using a dirk (a long-bladed knife) that is provided to her by the piper. As the bride slices the first piece of wedding cake, custom dictates that her hand is guided by the hand of her new husband. 6. The wedding reception is filled with music, signing, much drinking and toasting to the health and happiness of the new couple. The celebrations can go on into the wee hours of the morning. 7. One custom that hasn’t changed for more than 700 years is the custom of the groom carrying his new bride over the threshold of their new home together. XIII. The Netherlands: 1. Dutch people are free to choose their spouses. The common basis for marriage is most often love. This does not mean that people marry independently of the constraints of class, ethnicity, and religion. 2. The choice of a partner is often class-based. Monogamy is the only marriage form allowed. 3. Many Dutch couples live in a consensual arrangement. Same-sex couples can marry and have the same rights as heterosexual couples. 4. A civil wedding ceremony, usually conducted in the town hall, is required in Holland to give marriage legality; so many couples have both a religious and civil ceremony on the same day. 5. The wedding ceremony is usually followed by a series of celebrations consisting of a reception, a formal dinner and a party, and it is common practice for family and friends to be invited to either all or just part of the celebrations, depending on their closeness to the couple. XIV. Russia: 1. The betrothal is a ceremony performed with the rites of the Eastern Church, and takes place eight days before the marriage. 2. During the interval between betrothal and marriage the brides girl friends endeavor to amuse her and keep up her spirits (for she is supposed to be in a state of lamentation and grief) by singing to her, and their songs tell of the happiness of married life. 3. On the day before the wedding they conduct her to the bath, where much time is spent in dressing her hair, while she listens to their songs. 4. Both bride and bridegroom receive a solemn blessing from their parents before leaving their houses, and even the wedding garments are blessed by the priest. 5. After the dedication, cups are thrown to the floor. Their breaking means happiness. 6. The bride and groom usually tie a doll to the wedding car or carriage if they wish their first child to be a girl, and a teddy bear if they want a boy. XV. Hawaiian: 1. The bride wears a long, white formal version of the muumuu called a ‘holoku. 2. Instead of a veil, a woven garland of island flowers, ‘haku lei’ is worn around her head. 3. The bride’s bouquet may consist of white orchid sprays. 4. The groom wears a long sleeve white shirt and white pants. A long red or colored sash is worn wrapped about his waist. A lei of maile and ilima flowers adorn his neck. 5. Hawaiian wedding bands bearing the couple’s name in Hawaiian are often exchanged. The name ‘kuuipo’ meaning sweetheart, is favorite choice for the bride. XVI. Philippines: 1. During the reception couples practice the Filipino wedding custom of releasing a pair of doves to symbolize a loving and harmonious marriage. 2. During the reception the wedding cake is sliced. 3. Throwing rice confetti at the newlyweds will bring them prosperity all their life. 4. The groom must arrive before the bride at the church to avoid bad luck. 5. Dropping the wedding ring, the veil or the arrhae during the ceremony spells unhappiness for the couple. 6. Bride should not try on her wedding dress before the wedding, maybe it will push through. XVII. Native American: 1. From Apache to Cheyenne and Hopi to Sioux, Native American wedding customs are beautiful and vary according to tribe. One custom in particular requires the bride and groom to wash their hands to cleanse away evil and previous lovers. 2. Ceremonies can be held in chapels, historical landmarks, Indian monuments, or reservations. Pow Wow drums provide lively music for the wedding reception festivities. 3. The Blanket Ceremony This ritual entails using two blue blankets to represent the couple’s past lives. The couple are wrapped in blue blankets and led to a sacred circle of fire. The officiating person or spiritual leader blesses the union and the couple shed the blue blankets and enveloped by relatives in a single white blanket which represents their new life. Under the white blanket, it’s customary that the couples embrace and kiss. The white blanket is usually kept and displayed in the couple’s home. 4. The Native American bride may wear a white dress or a beautiful long leather dress with beading and traditional colors woven into the fabric. The traditional colors of Native Americans include White for east, Blue for south, Yellow for west, and Black for north. 5. The wedding feast consists of ceremonial foods such as white and yellow corn prepared in a delicious corn mush. The white represents the groom and the yellow represents the bride. The two types of corn are mixed to represent the new union.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

English Essays Frankenstein

English Essays Frankenstein Why is Frankenstein considered a Gothic novel and Fathers and Sons and Great Expectations considered realist? Discuss in an essay of 2000 words with reference to Frankenstein and either Fathers and Sons or Great Expectations. Great Expectations and Frankenstein provide us with examples of the nineteenth century English novel frequently labeled realist and gothic respectively. This essay aims to discuss the characteristics that contribute to these labels and how far this sets the two novels apart. The realist novel is classified as such by its attempt to represent social types of the time and symbolize the community of a historical era by portraying particular individuals. Consequently, characters within the novel serve as examples of their particular social type. One of the aims of the realist novel was to bring life to history, to add a human viewpoint to a real historical situation. This means that the realist narrative focuses on the everyday concerns, thoughts and feelings of societys people. Not concerned solely with immediate feelings, the ambitions and desires of a person are also of great interest to the realist writer. As a result we are presented with a picture not just of how the world was, but how different social types imagined it to be. Great Expectations is set in early Victorian England at a time when great social changes were taking place. The Industrial Revolution of the late eighteenth and nineteenth century had transformed the social landscape, enabling capitalists and manufacturers to amass huge fortunes that would otherwise have been unattainable; social class was no longer a status dependent purely on birth. This is the dynamic environment into which Dickens places his protagonist, Pip. Pips sudden transformation from country laborer to city gentleman allows Dickens to commentate on the differences between social extremes. Pips decisions are constantly influenced by the strict rules and expectations that governed Victorian England at this time. The setting of the novel would have been familiar to its readership and certain aspects can clearly be linked to historical truth. For example, in 1841 there would have been three thousand civilian prisoners held aboard nine hulk ships anchored in English waters. It is reasonable to believe, therefore, that Magwitch could have escaped from a ship that found itself anchored off the Essex coast. The moral of the story is clear: social standing is a superficial and insufficient guide to character. Pip swiftly becomes driven by the fantasy of becoming a gentleman, and it is these great expectations that form the basic plot of the novel. As a result Dickens is able to satirise the very class system that he is a part of. The consequences of Pips actions allow us an insight into Dickens social ideals Pips life as a gentleman is no more satisfying or moral than his life as a country laborer. Indeed it is through Joe, Biddy and Magwitch that Pip learns that social and educational improvement are irrelevant to a persons true worth. Consequently, it must be noted that the realist novel is heavily influenced by the way that the realist novelist sees the world; Dickens focuses firmly on those in the community who have earned their status through commerce and as a result, the post-Industrial revolution class system portrayed largely ignores the nobility and aristocracy by birth. In thi s respect the realist novel can be read as more subjective social criticism and raises the issue of how reliable one author can be when it comes to presenting an objective view of the world. Characters in the novel naturally present us with conflicting views of society and it is left to Dickens to reconcile these ideas and present us with the answer, an answer that is heavily influenced by his own ideals. It can be argued that this technique over-simplifies social issues, in the words of Joe, one mans a blacksmith, and ones a whitesmith, and ones a goldsmith, and ones a coppersmith. Divisions among such must come, and must be met as they come. There seems to be little in between and each must be met as they are presented by Dickens. Other factors may also have come into play when producing this realist novel, particularly, the novels market. The content of Great Expectations would have been heavily influenced by the requirements of All the Year Round, one of the magazines for which Dickens wrote. Having just published a rather unsuccessful serial by another author, Dickens saw Great Expectations as a means of drawing in readers and getting the magazine back on track financially: an ironic influence considering the moral of the story which condemns the pursuit of financial and social gain. As mentioned previously, the setting of Great Expectations would have been familiar to its contemporary readers, allowing them to relate to characters. Setting is one factor that sets the realist novel apart from the gothic. The landscape presented in Frankenstein would have been wholly alien to readers of the time. Gothic novels tend to locate narratives in mysterious locations and this convention is clearly adhered to in Frankenstein, with action taking place in continental Europe and Arctic regions places it is unlikely Shelleys readers would have ever visited. In the same respect Victors experiments take place in an unknown setting as the majority of readers would have been unfamiliar with laboratories and scientific experiments. The use of strange and eerie settings succeeds in creating a mood of suspense and unsettling atmosphere, Who shall conceive the horrors of my secret toil as I dabbled among the unhallowed damps of the grave Another characteristic of the gothic novel is the use of the supernatural. Moers writes that, in Gothic writings fantasy predominates over reality, the strange over the commonplace, and the supernatural over the natural, with one definite authorial intent: to scare. Shelley uses the supernatural elements of raising the dead to frighten her readers. Through the eyes of Victor the monster is repulsive and altogether unnatural, shocking the reader out of reality, I suddenly beheld the figure of a man, at some distance, advancing toward me with superhuman speed. At a time of great scientific advancement this would have been a topical story that pushed the boundaries, presenting readers with a truly shocking idea removed from reality, but remotely possible. Not only is this topic unknown and mysterious, it is presented in such a macabre manner that terror consumes the reader. Victors decision to stop making a female monster is driven by fear that a race of devils would be propagated upon the earth who might make the very existence of the species of man a condition precarious and full of terror and this is the very feeling that has already been sparked in the reader during the creation of the first monster. The gothic tradition thrives on the sensational. In her essay on the Female Gothic, Moers argues that the gothic novel is primarily concerned with producing a physiological reaction, a story that chills the spine and curdles the blood. Victor himself experiences this bodily reaction induced by fear Sometimes my pulse beat so quickly and hardly that I felt the palpitation of every artery. In this respect, Shelleys novel clearly meets the criteria of the gothic traditions, illustrated by Lord Byron who is said to have run from the room screaming on first hearing the story of Frankenstein. Indeed, such sensationalist literature was highly sought after in this period and pandered to by such gothic fiction. These sensations are enhanced by the feeling of suspense that runs through Frankenstein, particularly from the moment the monster threatens Victor with the words, I will be with you on your wedding-night, a phrase that echoes through the novel from the moment it is spoken. Nature in the gothic novel is presented as sublime, a retreat from both physical and emotional strain. This is evident in Victors journey to the mountains to revive his spirits and the monsters joy when spring arrives. Nature is often used in conjunction with darkness to construe a feeling of foreboding or evil. This is the case as Victor creates the monster, an endeavor that forces him to shun daylight and lead a solitary life, the moon gazed on my midnight labours, while, with unrelaxed and breathless eagerness, I pursued nature to her hiding-places. As the novel progresses we would not expect life to be injected into the monster on any other night but a dreary night in November. Nature is used to a similar effect within Great Expectations where the mist that occurs on the nights when Pip visits Magwitch, The mist was heavier yet when I got out upon the marshes, and subsequently returns when he leaves for London, suggests that all will not run smoothly when he reaches the city. Through multiple narratives Shelley forces us to question our sympathies. In a Russian doll narrative style we are told the story of Frankenstein through Walton, who in turn tells the story of the monster, who in turn tells the story of Safie and the cottagers. However, it is not until halfway through the novel that we are subject to the monsters narrative and by this time we have already been influenced by Victors biased account of events. Consequently, we become aware of the complex nature of truth and the power of our own subjectivity. In the questions that are asked of us, supernatural becomes closer to natural than we may have first imagined. Although we are terrorized in true gothic fashion, we are simultaneously forced to question the source of this terror. Having said this, the complex narrative structure and the portrayal of the supernatural clearly invites more of a gothic reading. In his essay, Reading Frankenstein, Richard Allen points to narration as a signifier for narrative form, stating that Pips first person narrative makes his presentation in terms of what we might read as gothic excess in fact rather plausible, since it can also be understood as the product of a young imagination replete with the monsters and ogres of folk and fairy-tale tradition. The realist narrative directs us towards a more sensible and natural explanation, toning down what may be gothic content by presenting it from a realist perspective. This realist understanding of supernatural events can be identified in the reaction of the magistrate to whom Victor explains his story to, He had heard my story with that half kind of belief that is given to a tale of spirits and supernatural events. Both Dickens and Shelley draw from their own experiences in writing their respective novels. Dickens would have been extremely familiar with the city of London and the marshes surrounding Kent, and would also have experienced the law system, with his own father spending time in prison. Shelley was also frequently exposed to the ideas expressed in her novel, spending time with radical thinkers through her father and husband. Great Expectations may well be more openly realistic, but the subtext of Frankenstein connects to the natural more than a first reading may imply. There is a vast undercurrent of birth and abortion illustrated by a link that is often made between the creation of the monster and Marys loss of a child. Her journals explain that the baby died before it was given a name (just as Frankensteins monster remained nameless) and that she also experienced a vivid dream in which she was able to bring it back to life. It must be noted that neither novel can be classified by one single form. Great Expectations for example can also be read as a bildungsroman, another popular nineteenth century novel form which depicts growth and personal development by transition from childhood to adulthood. Much of the gothic novel also draws from the Romantic tradition, Shelleys portrayal of human feeling, compassions and discontent towards all that is commercial and inhuman is closely aligned with this movement. Walden observes this cross-over of genres, stating that what is especially interesting about Dickens writings is the degree to which they anticipate the continuing hybridity of genre expectations, a statement that can equally be applied to Shelley. Bibliography Frankenstein, Mary Shelley (Everymans Library, 1992) Great Expectations, Charles Dickens (Marshall Cavendish, 1986) The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelleys Novel, Edited by George Levine and U. C. Knoepflmacher (University of California Press, 1979) The Realist Novel, Edited by Dennis Walder (Routledge, 1995)

Grey Marketing And Parallel Imports Economics Essay

Grey Marketing And Parallel Imports Economics Essay Parallel trade or Grey market is a thriving business that is growing in most underdeveloped and developing countries today. This paper looks into the issues surrounding the grey market such as its impact on the people and the manufacturers along with the advantages and disadvantages of such a market thriving within a locality. Additionally the research also looks into the future prospects of parallel trade along with the primary reasons behind its existence. Introduction Grey marketing or parallel importing basically refers to the distribution or selling of products and goods which are trademarked to the customers without the express approval or knowledge of the original manufacturers consent through unauthorized distribution channels. These kind of markets are not classified as illegal markets as they products and goods are not physically stolen but are actually original pieces. The only issue is that the way the products are being sold is not actually approved of by the manufacturers. These goods and products can be termed to be illegal only if they violate either the product regulations or the licensing contract of the original manufacturer. The main reason for the existence of such a market is the price differential that exists in two different markets. For example, the higher resale potential of a product in a different market is what drives the existence of such a market. The price differential between two markets give an opportunity for the products to be bought in a place where it is relatively cheaper and sold at a considerably higher prices where the product is not available (Engardio et al., 1988). There are certain other factors which lead to gray marketing, such as: 1. When the genuine goods have set a performance, price channel, and market recognition that ensure demand and minimize consumer education. 2. A lack of focus by the authorized channel in the markets. A particular product may not be available in a market which forces the consumers to look for alternative ways to acquire the product. People who are involved in gray marketing may see the imbalance of supply and demand as an opportunity to make profits. 3. A significant change in the behavior of the consumers which may lead to an increased demand for lower priced products which may be accelerated by the governmental policies (Mathur, 1995). In an international context however, it tends to have a unexpected impact on the branding and brand equity. However, it does lead to a increase in the market share of the products and also aids in penetrating a closed market (Mitchell, 1998). This type of markets provides access to parallel trades wherein products that are protected by a patent or trademark are generally purchased legally from the retailer and which is then exported to another country without the authorization of the local manufacturer of the original product (Maskus, 2000b). Parallel imports mainly occur due to international price differences which could in turn be caused due to price discrimination, national differences in governmental price controls or vertical pricing restraints. One of the main areas in which parallel imports are heatedly debated is in the pharmaceutical sector. Parallel imports can be seen all over the world among the European Union countries the United States etc. Losses due to grey marketing Grey marketing and parallel imports also can be seen in the service sectors such as Telecom sectors, Health industry etc. In fact according to (Philip, 2005), the Indian telecom sector has incurred losses amounting to Rupees 458 crores since 1998. According to data compiled by the department, over 60 per cent of the revenue losses have been reported from Delhi and Maharashtra, with violations to the tune of Rs 290 crores. Grey market frauds of about Rs 60 crores had been registered in Andhra Pradesh, followed by Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Gujarat at Rs 36 crores, Rs 35 crores and Rs 15 crores respectively. These six states also accounted for over 95 per cent of revenue losses through illegal telecom set-ups, the Dept of Telecom added. Parallel trade can be extensively seen in the cell phone market. It all started with the emergence os the GSM international standard in 1990 after which the phones could be used anywhere in the planet prompting an increase in the demand for cell phones in markets where cell phone manufacturers still had not ventured into which in turn increased the size of the parallel market. According to (Sugden, 2009), about 30% of the cell phones traded are sold through a grey market and this statistics continue to be on the rise. This is about 500,000 cell phones which are bought and sold through unofficial channels every single day. An example of this is in the case of Apple iphones. These were released in select markets only. However, due to their popularity, they were in huge demand in other countries, where the consumers had no choice but to either procure it from a grey market trader or wait for the company to officially launch their products in that country. Theory of Parallel imports Parallel imports affect a wide range of industries, spreading from traditional luxury and brand- name consumer products (wines, cameras, and watches) to industrial products. Industry sources estimate that parallel imports account for 10% of IBM ¿Ã‚ ½s PC sales, 20% of Sharp ¿Ã‚ ½s copier sales, and 20% to 30% of the world cosmetics and fragrances sales (Ahmadi and Yang, 1995). Belgium, for example, despite the fact that it has no auto mobile industry is a major car exporter in Europe ¿Ã‚ ½more than 25,000 cars some years. This export success story is because cars are cheaper in Belgium than in nearby countries, due to tax differences (Weigand 1991). Another trend relating to parallel imports, is that this has evolved from basically a U.S. problem in the 1980 ¿Ã‚ ½s into a world -wide phenomenon in the 90 ¿Ã‚ ½s (Ahmadi and Yang, 1995). When the U.S. dollar was strong, during the 1981-1986 period, the number of cars purchased in Europe by U.S. tourists grew 2,000%. In 1986 the total value of products distributed through unauthorized channels in the U.S. reached a peak of $10 billion (Palia and Keown, 1991). This direction was reversed in subsequent years as other parts of the world, especially Asia and Europe, experienced rapid appreciation in their currencies and a corresponding surge of parallel imports (Ahmadi and Yang, 1995). A 1991 survey of U. S. exporters to Asia showed that 41% of 141 respondents reported having problems with parallel imports in the past five years (Palia and Keown 1991). In 1990 pharmaceutical parallel imports in the European Community stood at $500 million (Lynn 1991, quoted in Ahmadi and Yang, 1995 , p. 3). In an increasingly integrated world, the annual growth rate of parallel imports has been estimated to be 22%, and this is expected to rise as new trade agreements, like NAFTA and GATT, further lower trade barriers across nations. There are essentially two reasons why parallel imports occur in international markets. The parallel import or  ¿Ã‚ ½grey market ¿Ã‚ ½ exists because foreign manufacturers practice price discrimination among countries and grey market sellers arbitrage these price differences. Second, parallel importers are more efficient than authorized sellers because parallel imports compete with the goods of authorized sellers, in turn leading to lower prices that are beneficial to consumers. Those favoring parallel imports argue that international price discrimination restrict competition to the disadvantage of consumers in countries having higher prices. They say that parallel imports foster competition and efficiency, thus benefiting consumers in importing countries. Some researchers argue that, while it is clear that active parallel imports cannot exist without price differentials between countries, the source of these differentials is not quite so apparent (Weigand, 1991). Depending on the type of goods involved and the character of the market for the product, price differentials can be the result of a variety of factors, ranging from honest enterprise, such as a diverter who takes advantage of favorable foreign currency exchange rates and engages in a sort of product arbitrage, to a manufacturer who attempts to discriminate by price in different (usually foreign) markets. Therefore, in regard of the process of parallel imports, there is no end to the imaginative ways used to bring parallel imports to market. Four methods, however, represent the bulk of market imports and are focus of much of the economic and legal attention. First, are those products made overseas by for example American firms (see Figure 1). These foreign units may be subsidiaries, joint venture companies, or some other entity which have a commonality of interests with the American company. This foreign affiliate may sell to nearby authorized distributors, for example, a French firm. Somewhere in the authorized channel, however, distribution control is lost and the product gets into an unauthorized channel and some of it is exported back to the United States. Here it competes with identical domestically produced products. A second method (depicted by Figure 2) of parallel importing is when a foreign manufacturer (e.g. German) licenses a company to be the exclusive importer of a product bearing a foreign name or trademark. Impact of Parallel Trade There are a number of effects of all of this parallel importing activity. Here, the predicaments and opportunities created by these parallel distribution channels are discussed in more detail. First, consumers may be prejudiced against buying products which have been parallel imported because sometimes they cannot be properly serviced or maintained. They also may be worried that the so-called technical requirements for certain products may not met by grey importers. It needs to be made clear that parallel imports are not counterfeits but genuine products that are often sold at a lower price to consumers than these distributed by regular channels (Ahmadi and Yang, 1995). However, these may not necessarily have a lower profit margin because they can free ride on the promotional efforts of authorized dealers. Consequently parallel imports may undermine authorized dealers ¿Ã‚ ½ selling efforts. For example, by discouraging their investment in a sales-force or shelf-space. Advantages and Disadvantages of parallel importing Parallel imports promote free trade, encourage healthy competition and act as price levelers. Non application of parallel importation may result in complete control in distribution channels thereby perpetuating monopolies (Ashwini, 2006). Hence application is vital to minimize monopolistic effect of the policies of the multinational enterprises who try to control distribution channels. The biggest beneficiaries of parallel imports are the ultimate consumers who have the advantage of buying genuine goods produced by another licensee, offered under an authentic mark at a much lower rate. However, parallel import often raises serious issues of unfair competition and piggy backing  ¿Ã‚ ½ which refers to the attempt by the parallel importer to encash the goodwill fostered by the owner to sell their grey products. Concerns of quality of the goods also arise when the gray goods have been manufactured for a different market comprising different tastes and demands. The raw materials used may also be from geographically different areas directly affecting the consumer health. Furthermore, the corresponding guarantees and after sales maintenance services attached with the goods may be different for the various regions. Future of Parallel Imports The trend towards the globalization of markets, which is being facilitated by the development of a global communication system, envisages the end to domestic territoriality because of global competition. Because of the speed of new technologies and communication developments, parallel importation may be a short-term phenomenon. The impacts of globalization on parallel importation are two folds. First, as trade barriers between nations decrease, it will become more difficult to implement price discrimination policies based on country boundaries. Implicitly, parallel traders are therefore likely to gradually disappear, as there will be fewer opportunities for arbitrage. The issue of parallel importation may therefore become less significant as globalization continues. Secondly, traditionally, under international law, nations have asserted sovereignty based upon the territory that they legally control. Advances in electronic communications, including the Internet, however, have begun to change this. This development suggests that, rather than sovereignty based on territory, sovereignty will be based on information flows or economic spheres of influence will become the norm in cyberspace. This hypothesized shift will however, require a re-evaluation of present legal doctrines, which in turn may  ¿Ã‚ ½re-establish parallel imports legality. ¿Ã‚ ½ Nevertheless, when the world economy becomes far more globally integrated, which is likely in a digitally based economy, it becomes necessary to harmonize the different transactional rules between nations. This means policy co-ordination among different governments will be a critical step in achieving this (Rothnie, 1993). Measures to combat parallel trade Grey markets are not looked down upon by many industries primarily because they are benefitted by the increase of exposure of their products in new economies. Therefore parallel trade is a sensitive issue and this issue is something that can be most effectively combated against by the company ¿Ã‚ ½s themselves. There are certain safeguards that an organization can take to track products final destinations, such as: 1. Volume Control: One way to control the grey market distribution is to keep an eye on the supply chain of a product and track its normal volumes on a monthly basis. Furthermore, this data should be cross checked with the import and export records which are kept by the countries trade organizations (Palia, 1991). 2. Auditing: Proper auditing would ensure that a company can identify whether or not its products are being diverted from one country to another. 3. Different Packaging: This technique is already being used by some manufacturers. Utilizing this technique may lead to an increase in the overhead costs of manufacturing the product but the ability to segregate the markets through a differentiated product or with a variable packaging is a viable answer to prevent diversion and grey market with its own products. 4. RFID: Using radio frequency identification a risk tracking system can be adopted which would be inexpensive and such a system would be able to flag a product by its code if it is diverted. 5. Government legislations: Governments can strengthen up their trademark and copyright acts which aids in preventing the flow of products which are trademarked. Stricter laws have to be formalized and these laws also have to be properly enforced to ensure that grey market activity is curtailed if not stopped completely (Lewin, 1986). Conclusions Grey market is a thriving world from all the evidence presented so far. With globalization and advancement in the technology and reduction in trade barriers, parallel import market has steadily been growing especially in the developing countries where demand far outpaces supply. So far this has been a small sized market however it has grown significantly, in the past decade or so, due to decrease in the transaction costs around the world, penetration of internet leading to cross border commerce and products harmonization. There are clear advantages to the end customers due to the presence of parallel imports primarily due to the fact that it opens up the avenue for them to a large international market. Therefore the people are not complaining about the presence of such a market in their midst. However, the main entities who are hurt due to the presence of such a market are the government and manufacturers both of them losing a large amount in revenues that is actually supposed to go to them from taxes and profit margins respectively. Therefore the impact on the consumers is negligible except in cases when there vis a fault with the product and the customer cannot have it checked or replaced since he/she bought it out of warranty. Overall, it seems to be benefiting people more than harming them. Furthermore, I believe that the global grey market scenario will reduce in its size by itself primarily due to increasing globalization. With the spread of internet and the presence of global marketing company ¿Ã‚ ½s are making products that can be used anywhere in the world. Therefore the risk of inadvertently buying a product that would not be functional in a particular geographical place in decreasing day by day. Moreover, with couriers like DHL and UPS, it has become a fairly routine habit to purchase products or source them from another country. Therefore, its impact will slowly be eroded because trade barriers will become non existent and people are gaining more knowledge day by day and therefore are becoming self aware of all the possibilities. Besides this even organizations tend to keep quiet about their products being sold at places not designated by them as it increases their exposure in new markets. Recommendations The organizations can take a few steps if they want to prevent such grey markets by:  ¿Ã‚ ½ Ensuring that the current regulations are being adhered to strictly throughout the supply chain.  ¿Ã‚ ½ Establishing a tamper proof packaging solution which would be hard to duplicate and which would be easily identifiable to a consumer indicating its legal status. The governments can take the following steps to safeguard against thriving of such a market:  ¿Ã‚ ½ The government must formally consult with all stakeholders, i.e. manufacturers, in order to get their opinion on the impact of such a market on them.  ¿Ã‚ ½ They must encourage and motivate its citizens against purchasing products through this market. The harmful effects of such a decision should be spread about in the community especially in the case of grey market related to pharmaceuticals. Parallel traders must also:  ¿Ã‚ ½ Cooperate in putting an end to the practice of de-boxing, and move instead to  ¿Ã‚ ½over-box ¿Ã‚ ½ the un-tampered product to ensure integrity of the medicine.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Value of Work Experience :: Free Essays

The Value of Work Experience A summer or part-time job pays more than money. Even though the money earned is important, the work experience gained has a greater long-term value when one applies for a full-time job after graduation from school. Job application documents (the application blank and the personal data sheet) ask you to list jobs you have held and to list as references the names of individuals who supervised your work. (Gieseking and Plawin, 1994, 22) As one young person was heard to remark, â€Å"You can’t get a job without experience, and you can’t get experience without a job.† That dilemma can be overcome, however, by starting work early in life and by accepting simpler jobs that have no minimum age limit and do not require experience. Jobs Teens Can Do Begin early at jobs that may not pay especially well but help to establish a working track record: delivering newspapers, babysitting, mowing lawns, assisting with gardening, and the like. Use these work experiences as springboards for such later jobs as sales clerks, gas station attendant, fast-food worker, lifeguard, playground supervisor assistant, and office staff assistant (after you have developed basic office skills). As you progress through these work exploration experiences, try increasingly to get jobs that have some relationship to your career plans. If, for example, you want a career involving frequent contact with people—as in sales—seek part-time and summer work that gives you experience in dealing with people. Hamel, 1989, 10) How to Handle Yourself on the Job Whatever the job you are able to get, the following pointers will help you succeed in getting good recommendation for the next job you seek. 1. Be punctual. Get to work on time and return from lunch and other breaks promptly. 2. Get along well with others. Do your job well and offer to assist others who may need help. Take direction with a smile instead of a frown.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The Role of Chorus in Euripides Medea Essay -- Euripides Medea Essays

The Role of Chorus in Medea In section 18 of the Poetics Aristotle criticizes Euripides for not allowing "the chorus to be one of the actors and to be a part of the whole and to share in the dramatic action, . . . as in Sophocles." Aristotle may be thinking of the embolima of Euripides' later plays (satirized also by Aristophanes), but he is certainly wrong about the Medea. Its choral odes are not only all intimately related to the action but are also essential for the meaning of the play, particularly because here, as elsewhere (e.g. Hecuba), Euripides forces us reevaluate his main protagonist in midstream and uses the chorus (in part) to indicate that change. In her first speech Medea wins over the chorus by a plea to solidarity in the face of women's victimization by a male-dominated society, and this response by the chorus is an essential step in the poet's paradoxical task of winning sympathy and understanding for a mother who kills her children. But as that first speech itself indicates, Medea both is and is not a typical (Greek) woman: she is a foreig...

The Body Ritual of the Nacirema Essay -- Horace Miner Egocentrism Essa

The Body Ritual of the Nacirema It is human nature to describe one's own culture as the most advanced and most intellectual. Unfortunately, it is also common practice to look down upon the practices of another culture because they are not similar to one's own traditions. The ability to do this can sometimes be a damaging characteristic for society as a whole. Horace Miner realized the implications of egocentric views and wrote a groundbreaking essay to open society's eyes to their biases. 'The Body Ritual of the Nacirema' was written by Horace Miner for shock value. The article describes the rituals of a people which on the surface seem to be barbaric and highly out of date for that time at which the article was written. Some of the rituals described were women voluntarily baking their heads in ovens and visits to a 'holy-mouth man', which were extremely painful and costly, in order to gain social acceptance from their peers. Another unheard of tradition described in this essay was that of the sick people going to a temple where they had to give very large gi...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The Death of the Moth Analysis

Life is a constant struggle against the ever present chill of death. Fear, betrayal, and cowardice all stems from life’s distaste of death. Human beings naturally rebuke the unknown, so it is only logical that people fight the inevitability of death. However, most people are ignorant of the reality of one day dying, prompting writer Virginia Woolf to write the essay, â€Å"The Death of the Moth†, in order to convey the frailty of life whilst also showing the awesome might of death.In the essay, her main purpose is to show that the moth embodies the human race, and that death is an inevitable fact of life no matter how much the human race struggles to stay alive. Woolf is able to get her purpose across by utilizing her unique style of writing. This is achieved by sympathizing with the moth throughout the essay, switching the narration between her internal personal struggles and external struggles of the moth, and changing the entire tone of the essay when the different t hemes of life and death are explored.Using her distinct writing style, Woolf delves into the wonders of life, and the ever present battle against death. One of the techniques Woolf uses in her writing style is employing empathy within the readers. She strives to create an emotional connection between the reader and the subject of the essay. In this case, Woolf directs her use of empathy with the main character of the story, which is the moth. Even before delving into the life of the moth, Woolf begins to refer to the moth as â€Å"he† instead of â€Å"it†, suggesting that the reader relates to the moth on a more personal level, rather than viewing him as just another insignificant bug.This creates a personal bond between the reader and the moth, resembling that of a companionship. Instantly, Woolf has been able to get the audience interested and emotionally invested in her essay by simply referring to the moth as a â€Å"he†. Furthermore, she proceeds to observe this moth closely, refusing to divert her attention to the happenings around her. As the moth lives his carefree life by vibrantly flying around, Woolf cannot help but pity the insignificance he has in the grand scale of things. ‘â€Å"One could not help watching him. One, was, indeed, conscious of a queer feeling of pity for him.The possibilities of pleasure seemed that morning so enormous and so various that to have only a moth’s part in life, and a day moth’s at that, appeared a hard fate, and his zest in enjoying his meager opportunities to the full, pathetic’† (Woolf 1). She continually pities the fact that the moth continues to make the most of his desperate and futile situation. No matter his frailty and impending doom, the moth continues to carelessly dance around the windowpane, either because he is unaware that he will soon die, or because he chooses not to care about his demise.However, Woolf begins to realize that the moth’s stre ngth is failing him, and she comes to the cold conclusion that he is at death’s door. Not soon after that, the moth senses that his strength is failing him, but even upon knowing his inevitable death, the moth continues to fight. Woolf’s heart goes out to the insect. ‘â€Å"It was superb this last protest, and so frantic that he succeeded at last in righting himself. One’s sympathies, of course, were all on the side of life (Woolf 2)’†. She resolves to root for the moth, and applaud his final protest against death.By the use of her writing style, Woolf has caused the audience to root for the moth’s final efforts along with her. By getting so emotionally invested in this moth, the audience realizes that no matter what happens, death will win, which saddens the readers. Their fellow comrade will fall, and it alerts everybody of the harshness of the situation. In reality people fight to live, but everyone will die just like that moth, and by creating an emotional attachment between the readers and the moth, people begin to understand the frailty of existence through this insignificant moth.In addition to creating empathy, Woolf uses a beautifully poetic method in getting her purpose across, which is exploring the external struggles of the moth while employing those struggles to her own personal demons. She is able to switch the narratives between external and internal conflict without the audience even realizing it. Through the use of her vivid imagery and lucid writing style, Woolf achieves this double narrative story without the readers even consciously aware of it.This use of story-telling gives the readers multiple sides of the story, and is able to relate the tragic happenings of the moth to the even more tragic workings of Woolf’s mind. At first she explores the failing strength of the moth, which is the entire basis of the essay. ‘â€Å"After perhaps a seventh attempt he slipped from the wooden ledge and fell, fluttering his wings, on to his back on the windowsill. The helplessness of his attitude roused me†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Woolf 2). However, she begins to directly correlate these outside and physical experiences to the internal conflict and drama she’s been feeling.‘â€Å"But, as I stretched out a pencil, meaning to help him to right himself, it came over me that the failure and awkwardness were the approach of death. I laid the pencil down again’† (Woolf 2). Upon trying to help the moth, she soon sees how her actions would only prove to be futile, causing her to give up trying to help. This leads internal conflict within her, because she questions the use of fighting to stay alive when death will happen anyways. This causes her to pity the moth, who continually attempts to live, even though there’s no use. The internal trauma Woolf feels comes to a climax when the moth succumbs to death.‘â€Å"Just as life had been strange a few mi nutes before, so death was now as strange. The moth having righted himself now lay most decently and uncomplainingly composed. O yes, he seemed to say, death is stronger than I am’† (Woolf 3). Woolf is amazed at how quickly and easily death came, and how death was an endless wave of mystery. In the end, she comes to terms with the fact that death will always triumph life, no matter how much people fight to live. By using both internal and external conflict to express this ongoing battle, the reader completely grasps the theme of inevitability of death by seeing multiple examples presented to them.The last technique used by Woolf in her particular style is the use of tone and the words she chooses to employ throughout the entirety of her essay. In the beginning of the essay, the tone is light, having a congenial feel to it. The words used by Woolf flow very smoothly, and through the use of the happy and flowing words, she conveys the joys of life. She is basically celebr ating the life and energy of the moth. ‘â€Å"Nevertheless the present specimen, with his narrow hay-colored wings, fringed with a tassel of the same color, seemed to be content with life.It was a pleasant morning, mid-September, mild, benignant, yet with a keener breath than that of the summer months’† (Woolf 1). Woolf was renowned for her colorful language and the constant flow of the text. However, once the idea of death is introduced, the essay begins to take a morbid turn. A sense of foreboding is introduced into the mix, and the style of the writing changes. Instead of the flowing writing style and beautiful imagery, Woolf switches to longer sentences that contain different literary devices and the use of words is choppier rather than flowing.‘â€Å"When there was nobody to care or to know, this gigantic effort on the part of an insignificant little moth, against a power of such magnitude, to retain what no one else valued or desired to keep, moved o ne strangely. Again, somehow, one saw life, a pure bead’† (Woolf 2). Woolf doesn't utilize just words, but emotions in helping us to understand the full impact of death. Upon the introduction of the death of the moth, the demise of Woolf’s usual flowing writing occurs as well. By using different writing styles within the same essay, Woolf is able to achieve her purpose by creating a sense of dread within the reader.The theme of the inevitability of death is portrayed so skillfully by Woolf’s use of imagery and tone. Woolf’s skillful writing style is used to convey the absoluteness of death in a way that no other author is able to accomplish. By using empathy through the moth, conveying internal and external conflict, and using different tones and writing styles within the essay, Woolf was able to accomplish her purpose of showing the frailty of life, and how death will always triumph, no matter the struggle against it. People usually ignore this har sh fact, but Woolf was able to convey it through emotions rather than words, so people easily understood.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

How Computers Changed the World Essay

How Computers impart changed our orbit. There isnt very many people around who good deal say that their lives have not been changed by ready reckoners. Computers How Have Computers Changed Our World StudyMode.comHome cognizanceThe computer has significantly changed our world done advances in science and medicine, business and education. In fact the computer is a wondrous How Computers have Changed the World Homeevery dinky bit of technology is controlled by a chip, a computer chip. A computer is the next level. Truly on the whole I am saying is computers have changed the world How Did Computers Change the World? Ask.comQ&A Science EnvironmentComputers changed the world specially when the Internet came on the scene. No prolonged did the world seem so gigantic as people could connect no matter where Computers have changed our lives completely small article Aug 21, 2013 Computers how they have change d our lives In the academic world, teaching and learning has shifted from the manual and wear out How computer change the world Wiki AnswersCategories engineering Computers Here is a list wherefore computers have changed the world . Software employ on computers has also changed and they now tender many more facilities which can be How has computers changed company Wiki Categories Technology Computers Computers have changed society in an infinite number of ways. What use to take In a sense, the world has become a smaller can because of the computer. How Computers Changed the World BuzzleJun 22, 2011 Fire is known to be mans first invention. But, little did he know wherefore, that this effort was passing play to change his world so drastically. Since then How Apple computers changed the world forever Catholic Many share Luns survey that Apple computers success was solely the overwork of Apples chief executive officer, Steve Jobs, who has recently announced his Searches related to how did the computer changed the world